1. THE RUSSIAN-KAZAKHSTAN RATIOES AT THE PRESENT STAGE 5
1.1 Mutual Trade 8
1.2 Cooperating in oil gas and power 15
1.3 Cooperating in sphere of transport and communication 18
2. CONDITION OF FOREIGN TRADE BOTH DEV’T OF THE JOINT / ENTERPRISES KAZAKHSAN AND RUSSIA
2.1 Some aspects of economic interaction Kazakhstan and Russia 22
2.2 The factors of economic interaction of Kazakhstan and Russia 24
2.3 Engaging the foreign investments 26
2.4 Cooperating in the field of electric power industry 27
2.5 Cooperating in the field of machine construction industry 28
2.6 Cooperating in the field of a uranium industry 29
3. involvement in international organizations kazakhstan and russia 31
3.1 The Eurasian Union: Realities and Perspectives 34
4. VITAL PROBLEMS OF THE PRESENT-DAY STATE OF 44 KAZAKHSTANI-RUSSIAN RELATIONS
LIST OF USED SOURSES 65
The origins of Kazakhstani-Russian relations lie in hoary antiquity when Kazakhs and Russians lived on the vast Eurasian territory and being neighbors developed good-neighborly relations in all the spheres of human activity.
In analyzing the relations between Rus and the Great Steppe one cannot fail to mention the work of the greatest specialist in this field Lev N. Gumilyov. In his preface to Gumilyov's book Ancient Rus and the Great Steppe Academician Dmitry S. Likhachev wrote this: Rightly taking into account the links between subsistence economy and the level of prosperity of ancient societies and thus their military power the author also compares historical events and climactic fluctuations of the steppe zone of Eurasia. In this way he arrived at a series of clarifications which enabled him to describe in detail the historical-geographic backdrop against which various cultural influences came in conflict with the local forms of the original culture of Eastern Europe.
It must be noted in any analysis of the emergence of the 15 new post-Soviet states on the map of Eurasia that certain specific features marked the genesis of each of them. The present study focuses on the processes of sovereignty of Kazakhstan and the specificity of these processes lies in that from the very beginning the republic's political leadership did not initiate centrifugal tendencies regarding reasonable integration an imperative of the times and endeavoring to ease as much as possible the destructive consequences at every stage in the disintegration of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last former Soviet republic to declare its independence - not out of any strong gravitation toward the past or peripheral political development let us recall that Kazakhstan was one of the first to experience in December 1986 the repressive power of totalitarianism then already withering away but because it understood that artificial acceleration of this process is fraught with the danger of serious upheavals. The history of numerous bloody ethnic social and even interstate conflicts in the post-Soviet space bears striking evidence of that.
The immediate subject matter of the present study is not just the isolated process of the sovereignty of one of the post-Soviet countries but the emergence and development against this background of new interstate relations of two major republics of the Soviet Union Kazakhstan and Russia. In our view it is relations between precisely these two countries that can be seen as a model for the establishment of equal and mutually advantageous between newly independent states. This view is borne out by a sufficiently smooth and planned though far from problem-free development of bilateral Kazakhstani-Russian relations a meaningful historical tradition of mutual relations and an absence of sharp turns or wavering due to subjective or external causes.
Another unifying factor is time—the many centuries of the history of mutual relations between the peoples of the two countries that have been neighbors in these great open spaces since the beginning of time. This far from simple history full of drama and heroism these strata of time bound together by the unremitting toil of numerous generations unite the two peoples.
The Soviet period in the relations between the two states let us recall that according to the 1977 Constitution of the USSR the constituent republics of the Soviet Union were declared to be "sovereign Soviet socialist states" united in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and having the right to enter into relations with foreign states conclude treaties and exchange diplomatic representatives and - theoretically -secede from the USSR was marked by the prevalence of the so-called converted forms. The ubiquitous and all-round dominance of All-Union structures made meaningless all talk of real interstate relations between Kazakhstan and Russia. Both sides were in this case the objects of a grandiose social experiment. Although positive achievements of tills period cannot be discarded either.
The emergence and further development of relations of equal partnership between new independent states the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation became a sort of synthesis of the entire centuries-old history of Kazakh-Russian relations. Only now can the relations between the two countries be justifiably described as subject-subject ones. At this stage both states solved such problems as defining their status in the system of world politics establishing relations with leading world nations and entering the field of international law.
The dominant role of Kazakhstani problems has determined the chronological framework of the investigation.
The overall time frame covers the period from December 1991 the setting up of the Commonwealth of Independent States which finally marked the disintegration of the USSR to the end of 1995.
In the four years bilateral Kazakhstani - Russian relations went through a series of significant stages the study of which can adequately determine the level of mutual relations between the two countries the scope and range of integration. We single out three stages in the development of Kazakhstani-Russian relations:
— Defining the legal interstate relations of the two countries December 1991 - May 1920
— Searching for a model of economic and political cooperation between the states May 1992 - March 1994
— Expanding and deepening integration between Kazakhstan and Russia in the economic and other spheres March 1994 - 1995.
Although some elements of legal contractual relations between Kazakhstan and Russia may be discovered before December 1991 when attempts to preserve the Soviet Union were made it will be more chronologically correct in our view to choose the moment at which the CIS was legally formed and the activity of the Union structures of authority was discontinued as the starting point of the study.
We propose that the signing in May 1992 of the treaty of friendship cooperation and mutual assistance between the two countries be singled out as the concluding moment of the first stage in the relations between Kazakhstan and Russia and at the same time as the beginning of the new stage. That document became the foundation for qualitatively new relations in the history of the two states opening the first page in the official interstate relations in the new history of Kazakhstan and Russia. It determined the principles of bilateral relations in the political economic military-strategic cultural and spiritual spheres lending a colossal impulse to the entire subsequent negotiation process.
During the search for a model of interstate economic and political cooperation between Kazakhstan and Russia the principles were developed for bilateral relations which were later recorded in the treaty of friendship cooperation and mutual assistance. The first official visit of President Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan to the Russian Federation in March 1994 marked the beginning of the third stage in the development of Kazakhstani-Russian relations - that of expanding and deepening integration between Kazakhstan and Russia.
This division of the time frame of bilateral Kazakhstani-Russian relations into periods shows that one of the goals of the present work is to demonstrate continuous development between Kazakhstan and Russia in the post-Soviet period.
As the period of political history analyzed here is extremely close to the present it cannot be regarded as worked out in detail in Russian and foreign scientific literature. However the problems of development of the new statehood of post-Soviet countries of Kazakhstan in this case of the birth and evolution of interstate relations of their entry into the international community are being studied ever more actively.
The crucial period of the disintegration of the USSR and the emergence on the map of the world of new independent states was primarily reflected in scientific periodicals. Special mention should be made of the collective work The New Treaty of Union: The Search for Solutions.
Problems of mutual relations between newly independent states have also become the subjects of attention of Russian experts and political scientists. The period of disintegration of the USSR and of the development of Kazakhstan as a sovereign independent state are at present actively studied by Kazakhstan scientists. Works have been written on the problem of the emergence of the new statehood development of the system of separation of powers democratization of society evolution of party structures and institutions of democracy and the construction of a new legal and judicial system. Present State and Works on the subject of bilateral Kazakhstani-Russian relations from the moment the two states achieved independence can be divided into several groups. The first and the most numerous one deal with relations between Kazakhstan and Russia within the framework of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
In recent years the development of market relations has considerably boosted interest for economic and trade cooperation between the two independent states. Mention must be made of a joint work by the staff of the Russian Institute for Strategic Studies under the title Kazakhstan: Realities and Perspectives of Independent Development It should be noted though that this work suffers from an obviously incomplete documentary and factual basis and a certain superficiality in the analysis of the problem.
The study is based on such sources as legal acts and interstate Kazakhstani-Russian treaties agreements declarations joint protocols and other documents and materials as well as decrees decisions and resolutions of the organs of state power in Kazakhstan and Russia.
Extremely important sources for the study of the last five years in the history of Kazakhstan and of Kazakhstani-Russian relations are the works of President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan: Without the Right or the Left The Strategy of the Formation and Development of Kazakhstan as a Sovereign State The Strategy of Resource Saving and the Transition to the Market The Market and Socioeconomic Development and especially his new book On the Doorstep of the 21st Century as well as his speeches at various forums.' Just as important as sources for the present study are the books by President Yeltsin of Russia: Confessions on a Given Theme Memoirs of a President as well as his official speeches and also the works of other Russian politicians and public figures which afford a deeper grasp of the essence of events happening in the post-Soviet space in the 1990s.
The process of market reform in the republic and the tendencies and prospects for further reform in the socioeconomic sphere are reflected in several books by Kazakhstan's Prime Minister A.M.Kazhegeldin: The Socioeconomic Problems of Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Times of Reform Kazakhstan in Times of Reform Problems of State Regulation Under the Conditions of Socioeconomic Transformation.
The formation of the republic's diplomatic service and problems of its civilized entry in the world community are studied in the works of K.K.Tokayev Kazakhstan's foreign minister.
Intense legislative processes at all levels in the given period necessitated close attention to the legal basis of the newly independent states. As far as Kazakhstan is concerned that legal basis includes above all the Constitutions of 1993 and 1995 of which the content and the sociopolitical background may be seen as the quintessence of the given period in the country's history.
The main distinctive feature of the source base of the study is the fact that most documents of the given period of political history have not yet been moved to the archives; it was therefore necessary to turn on many occasions to various central and departmental current archives. The identification and systematization of many sources their publication in a collection of materials devoted to the development of Kazakhstani-Russian relations was in themselves an important task.
It may thus be said that extensive sources have been used in the analysis of the above-mentioned problems; their study made it possible to paint a comprehensive picture of the development of Kazakhstani-Russian relations against the background of the sovereignty of Kazakhstan in 1991-1995.
1.THE RUSSIAN-KAZAKHSTAN RATIOES AT THE PRESENT STAGE
In a context of events which have taken place in region after September 11 the role of Russia in Central Asia a little has varied as well as all has varied geopolitical formulated in region last years.
In these conditions of one of important external policies of tasks of Kazakhstan is the adjusting of tactics and strategy in ratios with Russia which would correspond by modern geopolitical realities and long-term interests of our country.
Central Asia and Caspian Sea so-called recently Caspian – Central Asia region go into an region of traditional interests of Russia.
In this region it always had the important national interests which however in different periods were defined by different circumstances and factors.
The key interests of Russia in this region at the present stage can be reduced to the following.
Central Asia has the important value in of a safety of Russia.
The importance of this region for Russia is stipulated not oil by the factor implying from desire to save influence on Caspian Sea;
Our region is of interest for Russia territorial where its compatriots live. Are those on our sight three dominating interest of Russian Federation dominating Caspian – Central Asia region at the present stage. It in this region has also other interests trade cosmotron of “Baikonur” industrial communications etc. but they now in basic carry not so priority character.
Until recently Russia ensured above-mentioned interests without the special efforts. All countries of region in the majority were that or are otherwise dependent on Russian Federation.But the events which have occurred after September of the last year have brought in serious enough variations to a geopolitical situation in Central Asia and have affected on common position of forces in region.