Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

» Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

 
Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

1.1  Methodology as a science

1.1.1 Present-day issues of foreign language teaching at secondary school

1.1.2 Current concepts in secondary school graduates EFL

  Chapter 2. Theory of multiple intelligences

2.1  Gardners theory

2.1.1  Linguistic Intelligence

2.1.2  Logical/Mathematical Intelligene

2.1.3  Intrapersonal Intelligence

2.1.4  Interpersonal Intelligence

2.1.5 Musical Intelligence

2.1.6 Spatial Intelligence

2.1.7 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence

2.1.8 Naturalistic Intelligence

2.2. Psychological analysis of Gardners Theory

Chapter 3. Learning environment in teaching English conversation

3.1  Multiple intelligences in teaching English learners to the senior

forms of secondary school

3.1.1  Development of students speaking and pronunciation skills

3.1.2  Use of the World Wide Web in teaching English to secondary school graduates

3.1.3  Use of the VIDEO in teaching English to secondary school graduates

Conclusions

Bibliography

Supplement

Introduction

The theme of the present university degree thesis is Multiple

Intelligences as Strategy for teaching EFL to High School Graduates .

The topicalityof the research is stipulated by rapid changes in education

and intercultural communication etc. caused by the development of

computer technologies.

The aim of the university degree thesis is include the Multiple Intelligences as Strategy for TEFL to High school students .

Methods of the research:

-inductive

-deductive

-experience of noted scholars

-research of literature.

The theoretical value of the paper consists in using the results of the research in the EFL teaching.

The practical value - a good opportunity of using at the lessons of English on secondary school. It helps to achieve the best results in teaching English.

The structure of the paper:

The paper consists: The Introduction Chapter 1 where I have considered Methodology as a science Chapter 2 The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

And Chapter 3 Learning environment in teaching English conversation in the end of the paper Ive done the conclusions of the research and used the certain literature.

Principles of Multiple Intelligence Theory

The following principles are a condensation of J. Keith Rogers and based upon his study of Howard Gardner's theory:

-Intelligence is not singular: intelligences are multiple.

-Every person is a unique blend of dynamic intelligences.

-Intelligences vary in development both within and among individuals.

-All intelligences are dynamic.

-Multiple intelligences can be identified and described.

-Every person deserve opportunities to recognize and develop the

multiplicity of intelligences.

-The use of one of the intelligences can be used to enhance another intelligence.

-Personal background density and dispersion are critical to knowledge beliefs and skills in all intelligences.

-All intelligences provide alternate resources and potential capacities to become more human regardless of age or circumstance.

-A pure intelligence is rarely seen.

-Developmental theory applies to the theory of multiple intelligences.

-Any list of intelligences is subject to change as we learn more about multiple intelligences.

According to Howard Gardner as presented in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences human intelligence has the following criteria:

-Potential Isolation by Brain Damage.

-The Existence of Idiot [Autistic] Savants Prodigies and other Exceptional Individuals.

-An Identifiable Core Operation or Set of Operations.

-A Distinctive Developmental History along with a Definable Set of Expert "End-State" Performances.

-An Evolutionary History and Evolutionary Plausibility.

-Support from Experimental Psychological Tasks.

-Support from Psychometric Findings.

-Susceptibility to Encoding in a Symbol System.

Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new syllabus for secondary school

Comparing old and the new English teaching syllabi for secondary

schools one can clearly see some differences.

Lets begin with the introductory word. The introductory word of the old

syllabus covers only the explanation of practical and educational

purposes of English learning and end-goals of learning language

(listening speaking reading and writing). The introductory part of the

new syllabus includes:

1. Introduction.

2.Levels of speech competence.

3.The principles of the programme.

4. Educational purposes.

5. Grounds of content.

6. Methodological foundation (basis) of modern teaching and learning

English.

7. Control and essessment.

Criteria of essessment of pupils achievements (4 levels: elementary

middle sufficient high) have a special place in the new syllabus. Such

information is not included into the old syllabus.

According to the new sullabus teaching English starts from the

second form.

Analyzing the topics of conversation we can see that the old syllabus

gives us three main topics from the fifth to the eleventh form: A Pupil and

His Environment; Ukraine; English-Speaking Countries. The new

syllabus provides with 6 topics already in the second form: About

myself My Family and Friends School Life Recreation Nature Man

The Life of Society and 8 topics from the third to the 11th form.

Analysing communicative unit we find there speech functions and

examples of functional exponents in the new syllabus which are

not mentioned in the old syllabus.

Language competence includes vocabulary grammar and phonetics in

both syllabi but in the old syllabus the number of lexical units in each

form is fixed.

Sociocultural and sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence

are not defined in the old syllabus.

At the end of each year specific demands to speech competence of pupils

(listening monologue dialogue reading writing) are defined in the new

syllabus.

In general the new syllabus is much but specific wider.


1.1. Methodology as a science

The term has several correspondences in English: methodology methods and methodics. The word methodology will be used for and of teaching English as foreign language [TEFL].

There are several definitions of this term:

Methodology (from Greek methodos logos ) is a framework of organization of teaching which relates linguistic theory to pedagogical principles and techniques.[37 p.5]

Methodology is a branch of pedagogy which dealing with peculiarities of teaching a certain subject.[38 p.12]

Methodology of FLT is a body of scientifically tested theory concerning the teaching of foreign languages in school and other education institutions.[37 p.17]

Methodology is a system of principles and ways of organization and construction of theoretical and practical activity as well as teaching about this system .[37 p.14]

Methodology is a science which studies aims contents means principles techniques and methods of a system of instruction and education.[37 p.15]

Methodology is a branch of didactics which relates a linguistic theory to pedagogical principles and techniques.

The scholarsve considered the relation of methodology of FLT to other sciences ( supplement 1).

The objective of the present research is integrating some aspects of knowledge of English didactics psychology linguistics to formulate basic professional and pedagogical habits and skills. In G. Rogovas opinion methodology covers three main points:

aims of TEFL;

content of TEFL;

methods ( supplement 2) principles and techniques of TEFL.

But it becomes evident that the three components do not constitute the whole teaching/learning process. The activities of learners and teachers their interaction (symmetrical or assymetrical) and the role of instruction materials are the outstanding constituents. The task of methodology is to integrate the relationships among them and to draft requirements for each of them.

Teaching a subject is viewed here not simply as the delivery of prescribed formulate imparting a certain amount of knowledge but also developing habits and skills but also as activity.

To attain these aims in the most effective way constitutes the main subject of any methodology. The methodology determines the laws principles aims content methods techniques and means (media) of teaching. The actual teaching of a language may differ in the analysis of what is to taught in the planning of lessons in the teaching techniques used in the type and amount of teaching done thought mechanical means and finally in the testing of what has been learned.

Basic Categories Of Methodology

The methodology of TEFL seems to embody such basic categories on which there is general agreement among those who have studied the subject: methods principles techniques aims and means of instruction.

There is no unanimity regarding the term method either. In G. Rogovas et. al. view method is a technological operation structural and functional component of the teachers and learners activity realized in techniques and principles of instruction. A method is a model of instruction based on definite theoretical provision principle techniques and aims of instruction.

A method is also a specific set of teaching techniques and materials generally backed by stated principles.

A method determines what and how much taught (selection) the order in which it is taught (gradation) and how the meaning and form are conveyed (presentation). Since presentation drill and repetition may also be the concern of the teacher the analysis of the teaching/leaning process must first determine how much is done by the method and how much by the teacher.

Aim is a direction or guidance to establish a course or procedure to be followed. The teacher should formulate long-term goals interim aims and short-term objectives. What changes he can bring about in his pupils at the end of the week month year course and each particular lesson. Hence aims are planned results for pupils learning a FL. The aims are stipulated by syllabus and other official directives. They are: practical instructional educational and developing (formative).

Practical aims cover habits and skills which pupils acquire in using a foreign language. A habit is an automatic response to specific situation acquired normally as a result of repetition and learning.

A skill is a combination of useful habits serving a definite purpose and requiring application of certain knowledge.

Instructional aims developed the pupils mental capacities and intelligence in the process of FLL (foreign language learning).

Educational aims help the pupils extend their knowledge of the world in which they live.

Formative or developing aims help develop in learns sensual perception motor kinesthetic emotional and motivating spheres.

Principles are basic underlying theoretical provisions which determine the choice of methods techniques and others means of instruction.

Technique in the methodology of TEFL is the manner of presentation demonstration consolidation and repetition.

Means is something by the use or help of which a desired goal is attained or made more likely.


1.1.1. Present-day issues of TEFL

A critical review of methods currently employed in TEFL/TESL has shown no consensus on the effective way to facilitate and accelerate English learning. A shift has been made from teacher-centered activity to student-centered some methodologists even claim that learning is more important than teaching (Michael West Humanistic Approach Silent Way).

Though many young teachers still teach the way they had been taught it cant be denied that current thinking in methodology constitutes a challenge to convention thinking about language teaching.

One of the conventional methods of TEFL is the Grammar-Translation method
(G-TM):

The goal of foreign language (FL) study using this method is to learn a language in order to read its literature or to benefit from the mental discipline and intellectual development that result from FL study. G-TM is a way of studying language that approaches the language first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules followed by application of the knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language. The first language is maintained as the reference system in the acquisition of the second language.

Reading and writing are the major focus: little or no systematic attention is paid to speaking or listening.

In a typical G-T text the grammar rules are presented and illustrated a list of vocabulary items is presented with their translation equivalents and translation exercise a prescribed.

the sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. Much of the lesson is devoted to translating sentences into and out of the target language and it is this focus on the sentence that is a distinctive feature of the method.

of grammar rules which are then practised through translation Accuracy is emphasized. Students are expected to attain high standarts in translation because of the high priority attached to meticulous standards of accuracy which was a prerequisite for passing the increasing number of formal written examinations that grew up during the century"

Grammar is taught deductively that is by presentation and study exercises.

The student's native language is the medium of instruction. It is used to explain new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the FL and the student's mother tongue. (G-TM dominated in FLT from the 1840s to the 1940s and in modified form it continues to be widely used in some parts of the world today).

In the mid- and late nineteenth centuries opposition to G- TM gradually developed in several European countries. This Reform Movement as it was referred to laid the foundations for the development of a new way of language teaching and raised controversies that have continued to the present day.

From the 1880s however practically minded linguists like Henry Sweet in England Wilhelm Victor in Germany and Paul Passy in France began to promote their intellectual leadership needed to give reformist ideas greater credibility and acceptance.

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