Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school
1.1 ááááMethodology as a science
1.1.1 Present-day issues of foreign language teaching at secondary school
1.1.2 Current conceptsá in secondary school graduates EFL
Chapter 2. Theory of multiple intelligences
2.1 áGardnerĺs theory
2.1.1 Linguistic Intelligence
2.1.2 Logical/Mathematical Intelligene
2.1.3 Intrapersonal Intelligence
2.1.4 Interpersonalá Intelligence
ááááááááááá 2.1.5á Musicalá Intelligence
2.1.6á Spatialá Intelligence
ááá 2.1.7á Bodily-Kinestheticá Intelligence
ááá 2.1.8á Naturalisticá Intelligence
áááá 2.2.á Psychological analysis of Gardnerĺs Theory
Chapter 3. Learning environment in teaching English conversation
3.1 Multiple intelligences in teaching English learners to the senioráá
ááááááááááá forms of secondary schooláááááááááááááá
3.1.1 Development of studentsĺ speaking and pronunciation skills
3.1.2 Use of the World Wide Web in teaching English to secondary school graduates
3.1.3 Use of the VIDEO in teaching English to secondary school graduates
ááááááá The theme of the present university degree thesis is ô Multiple
Intelligences as Strategy for teaching EFL to High School Graduates ô.
The topicalityof the research is stipulated by rapid changes in education
andá intercultural communication etc. caused by the development of
ááááááá The aim of the university degree thesis is include the Multiple Intelligences as Strategy for TEFL to High school students .
áááááááá Methods of the research:
-experience of noted scholars
-research of literature.
The theoretical value of the paper consists in using the results of the research in the EFL teaching.
ááááááá The practical value -á a good opportunity of using at the lessons of Englishá on secondary school. It helps to achieve the best results in teaching English.
ááááááá The structure of the paper:
The paper consists: The Introduction Chapter 1 where I have considered ôMethodology as a scienceö Chapter 2 ôThe Theory of Multiple Intelligencesö
And Chapter 3 ôLearning environment in teaching English conversationö in the end of the paper Iĺve done the conclusions of the research and used the certain literature.á
áááááááááááááááááááá Principles of Multiple Intelligence Theory
The following principles are a condensation of J. Keith Rogers and based upon his study of Howard Gardner's theory:
-Intelligence is not singular: intelligences are multiple.
-Every person is a unique blend of dynamic intelligences.
-Intelligences vary in development both within and among individuals.
-All intelligences are dynamic.
-Multiple intelligences can be identified and described.
-Every person deserve opportunities to recognize and develop the
ámultiplicity of intelligences.
-The use of one of the intelligences can be used to enhance anotheráááá intelligence.
-Personal background density and dispersion are critical to knowledge beliefs and skills in all intelligences.
-All intelligences provide alternate resources and potential capacities to become more human regardless of age or circumstance.
-A pure intelligence is rarely seen.
-Developmental theory applies to the theory of multiple intelligences.
-Any list of intelligences is subject to change as we learn more about multiple intelligences.
According to Howard Gardner as presented in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences human intelligence has the following criteria:
-Potential Isolation by Brain Damage.
-The Existence of Idiot [Autistic] Savants Prodigies and otheráá Exceptional Individuals.
-An Identifiable Core Operation or Set of Operations.
-A Distinctive Developmental History along with a Definable Set of Expert "End-State" Performances.
-An Evolutionary History and Evolutionary Plausibility.
-Support from Experimental Psychological Tasks.
-Support from Psychometric Findings.
-Susceptibility to Encoding in a Symbol System.
áááááá Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new syllabus for secondary school
áááááááá Comparing old and the new English teaching syllabi for secondary
schools one can clearly see some differences.
Letĺs begin with the introductory word. The introductory word of the old
syllabus covers only the explanation of practical and educational
purposes ofá English learning and end-goals ofá learning language
(listening speaking reading and writing). The introductory partá of the
new syllabus includes:
2.Levels of speech competence.
3.The principles of the programme.
4. Educational purposes.
5. Grounds of content.
6. Methodological foundation (basis) of modern teaching and learning
7. Control and essessment.
ááááááá Criteria of essessment of pupilsĺ achievements (4 levels: elementary
middle sufficient high) have a special place in the new syllabus.á Such
information is not included into the old syllabus.
áááááá According to the new sullabusá teaching English starts from the
Analyzing the topics of conversation we can see that the old syllabus
gives us three main topics from the fifth to the eleventh form: A Pupil and
His Environment; Ukraine; English-Speaking Countries. The new
syllabusá provides with 6 topics already in the second form: About
myself My Family and Friends School Life Recreation Nature Man
The Life of Society and 8 topics from the third to the 11th form.
áááááááá Analysing communicative unit we find there speech functions and
examples of functional exponents in the new syllabus which are
not mentionedá in the old syllabus.
Language competence includes vocabulary grammar and phonetics in
both syllabi but in the old syllabus the number of lexical units in each
form is fixed.
Sociocultural and sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence
are not defined in the old syllabus.
At the end of each year specific demands to speech competence of pupils
(listening monologue dialogue reading writing) are defined in the new
In general the new syllabus is muchá but specific wider.
1.1. Methodologyá asá aá science
Theá term ôýň˛ţńŔŕÓöá hasá severalá correspondencesá iná English: methodology methodsá andá methodics. Theá wordá methodologyá willá beá usedá forá ôýň˛ţńŔŕÓöá andá ôýň˛ţńţŰţŃ│ öá ofá teachingá Englishá asá foreigná languageá [TEFL].
Thereá areá severalá definitionsá ofá thisá term:
Methodologyá (fromá Greeká methodos ľá ˝´ţ˝│ß °Ű §á ńţ˝Ű│ńŠňÝÝ á Óßţá ´│šÝÓÝÝ logos ľ ´ţÝ ˛˛ Ô¸ňÝÝ )á isá aá frameworká ofá organizationá ofá teachingá whichá relatesá linguisticá theoryá toá pedagogicalá principlesá andá techniques.[37 p.5]
Methodologyá isá aá branchá ofá pedagogyá whichá dealingá withá peculiaritiesá ofá teachingá aá certainá subject.[38 p.12]
Methodologyá ofá FLTá isá aá bodyá ofá scientificallyá testedá theoryá concerningá theá teachingá ofá foreigná languagesá iná school áandá otherá educationá institutions.[37 p.17]
Methodologyá isá aá systemá ofá principlesá andá waysá ofá organizationá andá constructioná ofá theoreticalá andá practicalá activityá asá wellá asáá teachingá aboutá thisá system .[37 p.14]
Methodologyá isá aá scienceá whichá studiesá aims contents means principles techniquesá andá methodsá ofá aá systemá ofá instructioná andá education.[37 p.15]
áá Methodologyá isá aá branchá ofá didacticsá whichá relates a linguisticá theoryá toá pedagogicalá principles áandá techniques.
The scholarsĺve considered the relation of methodology ofá FLT to other sciences ( supplement 1).áá
Theá objective of the present researchááá isááá integratingá some aspectsááá of knowledgeá ofá English á didactics psychology á linguisticsá toá formulateá basicá professionalá andá pedagogicalá habitsá andá skills. Iná G. Rogovaĺsá opinion methodologyá coversá threeá mainá points:
aimsá ofá TEFL;
contentá ofá TEFL;
methods ( supplement 2) principlesá andá techniquesá ofá TEFL.
Butá itá becomesá evidentá thatá theá threeá componentsá doá notá constituteá theá wholeá teaching/learningá process. Theá activitiesá ofá learnersá andá teachers theirá interaction (symmetricalá orá assymetrical) andá theá roleá ofá instructioná materialsá areá theá outstandingá constituents. Theá taská ofá methodologyá isá toá integrateá theá relationshipsá amongá themá andá toá draftá requirementsá forá eachá ofá them.
Teachingá aá subjectá isá viewedá hereá notá simplyá asá theá deliveryá ofá prescribedá formulate impartingá aá certainá amountá ofá knowledge butá alsoá developingá habitsá andá skills butá alsoá asá activity.
Toá attainá theseá aimsá iná theá mostá effectiveá wayá constitutesá theá mainá subjectá ofá anyá methodology. Theá methodologyá determinesá theá laws principles aims content methods techniquesá andá meansá (media)á ofá teaching. Theá actualá teachingá ofá aá languageá mayá differá iná theá analysisá ofá whatá isá toá taught iná theá planningá ofá lessons iná theá teaching átechniquesá used iná theá typeá andá amountá ofá teachingá doneá thoughtá mechanicalá meansá andá finally iná theá testingá ofá whatá hasá beená learned.
Basicá Categoriesá Ofá Methodology
Theá methodologyá ofá TEFLá seemsá toá embodyá suchá basicá categoriesá oná whichá thereá isá generalá agreementá amongá thoseá whoá haveá studiedá theá subject: methods principles techniques aimsá andá meansá ofá instruction.
Thereá isá noá unanimityá regardingá theá termá methodá either. Iná G. Rogovaĺsá et. al. áviewá ômethodá isá aá technologicalá operation structuralá andá functionalá componentá ofá theá teacherĺsá andá learnerĺsá activity realizedá iná techniquesá andá principlesá ofá instruction. Aá methodá isá aá modelá ofá instructioná basedá oná definiteá theoreticalá provision principle techniquesá andá aimsá ofá instruction.
Aá methodá isá alsoá aá specificá setá ofá teachingá techniquesá andá materialsá generallyá backedá byá statedá principles.
Aá methodá determinesá whatá andá howá muchá taughtá (selection) theá orderá iná whichá itá isá taughtá (gradation) andá howá theá meaningá andá formá areá conveyedá (presentation). Sinceá presentation drillá andá repetitioná mayá alsoá beá theá concerná ofá theá teacher theá analysisá ofá theá teaching/leaningá processá mustá firstá determineá howá muchá isá doneá byá theá methodá andá howá muchá byá theá teacher.
Aimá isá aá directioná orá guidanceá toá establishá aá courseá orá procedureá toá beá followed. Theá teacherá shouldá formulateá long-termá goals interimá aimsá andá short-termá objectives. Whatá changesá heá caná bringá aboutá iná hisá pupilsá atá theá endá ofá theá week month year course andá eachá particulará lesson. Hence aimsá areá plannedá resultsá forá pupilsá learningá aá FL. Theá aimsá areá stipulatedá byá syllabusá andá otherá officialá directives. Theyá are: practical instructional educationalá andá developingá (formative).
Practicalá aimsá coverá habitsá andá skillsá whichá pupilsá acquireá iná usingá aá foreigná language. Aá habitá isá aná automaticá responseá toá specificá situation acquiredá normallyá asá aá resultá ofá repetitioná andá learning.
Aá skillá isá aá combinationá ofá usefulá habitsá servingá aá definiteá purposeá andá requiringá applicationá ofá certainá knowledge.
Instructionalá aimsá developedáá theá pupilsá mentalá capacitiesá andá intelligenceá iná theá processá ofá FLLá (foreigná languageá learning).
Educationalá aimsá helpá theá pupilsá extendá theirá knowledgeá ofá theá worldá iná whichá theyá live.
Formativeá orá developingá aimsá helpá developá iná learnsá sensualá perception motor kinesthetic emotionalá andá motivatingá spheres.
Principlesá areá basicá underlyingá theoreticalá provisionsá whichá determineá theá choiceá ofá methods techniquesá andá othersá meansá ofá instruction.
Technique iná theá methodologyá ofá TEFLá isá theá mannerá ofá presentation demonstration consolidationá andá repetition.
Meansá isá somethingá byá theá useá orá helpá ofá whichá aá desiredá goalá isá attainedá orá madeá moreá likely.á
ááááááááááááááááá 1.1.1. Present-dayá issuesáá ofá TEFL
Aá criticalá reviewá ofá methodsá currentlyá employedá iná TEFL/TESLá hasá showná noá consensusá oná theá effectiveá wayá toá facilitateá andá accelerateá Englishá learning. Aá shiftá hasá beená madeá fromá teacher-centeredá activityá toá student-centered someá methodologistsá evená claimá thatá learningá isá moreá importantá thaná teachingá (Michaelá West Humanisticá Approach Silentá Way).
Thoughá manyá youngá teachersá stillá teachá theá wayá theyá hadá beená taught itá canĺtá beá deniedá thatá currentáá thinkingá iná methodologyá constitutesá aá challengeá toá conventioná thinkingá aboutá languageá teaching.
Oneá ofá theá conventionalá methodsá ofá TEFLá isá theá Grammar-Translationá methodá
Theá goalá ofá foreigná languageá (FL)á study á usingá thisá method isá toá learná aá languageá iná orderá toá readá itsá literatureá orá toá benefitá fromá theá mentalá disciplineá andá intellectualá developmentá thatá resultá fromá FLá study. G-TMá isá aá wayá ofá studyingá languageá thatá approachesá theá languageá firstá throughá detailedá analysisá ofá itsá grammará rules followedá byá applicationá ofá theá knowledgeá toá theá taská ofá translatingá sentencesá andáá textsá intoá andá outá ofá theá targetá language. Theá firstá languageá isá maintainedá asá theá referenceá systemá iná theá acquisitioná ofá theá secondá language.
Readingá andá writingá areá theá majorá focus: littleá orá noá systematicá attentioná isá paidá toá speakingá orá listening.
Iná aá typicalá G-Tá text theá grammará rulesá areá presentedá andá illustrated aá listá ofá vocabularyá itemsá isá presentedá withá theirá translationá equivalents andá translationá exerciseá aá prescribed.
theá sentenceá isá theá basicá unitá ofá teachingá andá languageá practice. Muchá ofá theá lessoná isá devotedá toá translatingá sentencesá intoá andá outá ofá theá targetá language andá itá isá thisá focusá oná theá sentenceá thatá isá aá distinctiveá featureá ofá theá method.
of grammar rules which are then practised throughá translation Accuracyá isá emphasized. Studentsá areá expectedá toá attainá highá standartsá iná translation becauseá ofá ôtheá highá priorityá attachedá to meticulous standards of accuracy which was a prerequisite for passing the increasing number of formal writtená examinations that grew up during the century"
Grammar is taught deductively that is by presentation and study exercises.áááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááááá ááááááá
The student's native language is the medium of instruction. It is used to explain new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the FL and the student's mother tongue. (G-TM dominated in FLT from the 1840s to the 1940s and in modified form it continues to be widely used in some parts of the worldá today).
áIn the mid- and late nineteenth centuries opposition to G- TM gradually developed in several European countries. This Reform Movement as it was referred to laid the foundations for the development of a new way of language teaching and raised controversies that have continued to the present day.
From the 1880s however practically minded linguists like Henry Sweet in England Wilhelm Victor in Germany and Paul Passy in France began to promote their intellectual leadership needed to give reformist ideasá greater credibility and acceptance.