1. Bonn tourist information
The word “tourist” has appeared in English language in the beginning of the XIX century and in translation from English means: the man who makes trip for the sake of own pleasure or expansion of a cultural outlook.
Tourism is a dynamical developing phenomenon focused on the consumer. The world advice on tourism and travel has specified the following characteristics of modern tourism:
it is the largest industry of the world having approximately S 3 5 bln. of a working capital and including such components as:
travel (cruises buses planes automobiles railways);
residing (hotels and motels conferences exhibitions meetings);
a feed (restaurants cafe bars);
rest and leisure (games parks entertainments attractions).
The conducting manufacturer of an industrial output whose contribution to a total national product makes 6 1%.
The leader tax payer.
The employer 127 million people i. e. about everyone 15 from all working.
the most developing branch of the European economy.
Europe is a traditional tourism center. Let’s consider some European capitals as the centers of tourism.
1. Bonn tourist information
Until 1999 Bonn was the seat of government of the Federal Republic of Germany. Even today it still retains some governmental functions as Bundesstadt (Federal city).
Set in the beautiful Rhine valley between the Siebengebirge hills and the Eifel Bonn enjoys a rich heritage from its 2 000-year history. In the past half-century however Bonn has gone through dramatic changes. In 1949 the quiet university town was turned into the western capital of a divided Germany (mainly because Konrad Adenauer lived here). When reunification led the government to return to Berlin in the late 1990s the city changed its course and became a centre for enterpreneurs and businessmen.
In spite of the fact that Bonn is no longer the political center of modern Germany visitors still come here to see where Ludwig van Beethoven was born and Robert Schumann died.
The architectural style of the city is mainly Baroque as Bonn was a royal seat of the former princes elector.
Bonn is naturally also committed to the arts. One of the famous features of Bonn is the so-called "Museum Mile" a road with several important and interesting museums.
Most visitors to Bonn are pleasantly surprised by the contrasts between magnificent historical buildings and the charm of a small village all mixed with a sense of cosmopolitan urban life and high-quality cultural attractions.
Beethoven's home (now a museum) can be seen in the Bonngasse. Other sights include the Poppelsdorf Palace (with Botanical Garden) Bonn University (housed in an astonishingly beautiful Baroque palace which was formerly the palace of the Prince-Elector of Cologne) and the Bundeshaus (former Parliament House).
Just south of Bonn begins the romantic Middle Rhine valley with its vineyards and castle ruins. Nearby is one of the all-time "German" tourist sites: the Drachenfels (Dragon's Rock) in the village of Königswinter.
Roman soldiers first bridged the Rhine at Bonn in the year 11 BC. And the name "Bonna" appeared in official records between 13 and 9 BC. Two thousand years have left their mark in Bonn tracing its development from a Roman camp into the settlement known as "Villa Basilica" and on through the Baroque era's Electoral Palace which today houses the University.
Much of its history ancient and modern can be read in Bonn's cityscape. In the north for instance traces of the Romans can still be found and in the south providing a modern contrast soars "Lean Eugene" - the highrise Parliamentary Office Building and symbol of high politics.
Especially worth seeing are the Basilica in the heart of the city the venerable Münster in which kings were crowned between 1314-46; the two-storied church of Schwarzrheindorf; and Baroque Poppelsdorf Palace. Rounding out the historic array are magnificent turn-of-the-century villas. Bonn is renowned as the city of music. Ludwig van Beethoven first saw the light of day here in 1770. Paying homage to the great composer are Bonn's international Beethoven Festivals. His birthplace with museum is a must attraction. It is one of the characteristic Baroque town houses from the Electoral era.
With the National Art and Exhibition Hall and the new Art Museum as well as numerous other collections Bonn boasts a museum scene that is second to none. But the City of Beethoven has even more to offer. Such as the lovely Rhine riverbank promenade leading past the Beethovenhalle (concert hall) the old Customs House and Villa Hammerschmidt - all the way to Bad Godesberg the diplomatic quarter. From here one has a splendid view of the fabled Siebengebirge with Drachenfels Drachenburg and Petersberg. Bonn - Your destination on the Rhine.
The University and the late Baroque Royal Palace
Not many universities can boast to be housed in such a beautiful building as the Bonn University. This amazing Baroque palace was built for the Elector Joseph Klemens in 16007-1705. Enrico Zuccalle designed the palace. It was later extended after 1715 by Robert de Cotte. The university was founded in 1818.
Beethoven House: Birthplace of the famous composer Ludwig van Beethoven with museum Ludwig was born here and lived in this house until the age of 22. The house itself is in Baroque style. After he left at the age of 22 he never came back to his home town again. The museum has a large collection of memorabilia from the life of the most famous German composer.
Museum Mile: alongside the road on the right bank of the Rhine are several museums: the Kunstmuseum Bonn (Art Museum) the Alexander Koenig Museum the Kunst - und Ausstellungshalle (Art and Exhibition Hall) and the Haus der Geschichte (German History Museum).
Historical Town Hall in the Rococo style built in the time of the Wittelsbach princes elector.
The town hall is situated at the central market square shaped like a triangle. The square shows a mixture of modern and Baroque architecture. The Rathaus (town hall) was built in 1737-1738 to a desing by Michel Leveilly. The Saint Remigius kirche is also situated near the Market Square. This gothic church was built for the franciscans in 1274-1317.
Das St. Martin Münster is the 12th-century cathedral of Bonn (1150-1230). It is a wonderful example of Romanesque architecture in the Rhine valley. The present prayer house was constructed on the site of an earlier 11th century cathedral. From this church a three-naved crypt has survived.
Schloss Poppelsdorf with the Botanical Gardens. Poppelsdorf is a classical Bonn district. With its lovely houses dating from the 1871-3 and art nouveau periods this area is one of the most popular residential areas. Around the Poppeldorfer Castle and Botanical Gardens there are many nice cafes restaurants and pubs. The neighbouring Südstadt is also lovely and just as popular with many nice student pubs.
Beuel is the name of the city district on the eastern side of the Rhine. It is connected to the centre of Bonn by the Kennedy Bridge. Well known because of the "fifth season" carneval. Today the memorial to the laundry women remembers the pioneers of "Weiberfastnacht" in 1824. The memorial plaque on the Synagogenplatz in Beuel reminds one of one of the worst chapters in Germany's history. The Heimatmuseum Beuel is also worth seeing.
Madrid became Spain's capital by grace of its geography: when Philip II moved the seat of government here in 1561 his aim was to create a symbol of Spanish unification and centralization. However the city has few natural advantages - it is 300 km from the sea on a 650-mentre-high plateau freezing in winter burning in summer - and it was only the determination of successive rulers to promote a strong central capital that ensured its success.
Today Madrid is a predominantly modern city but the streets at her heart are a pleasant surprise hiding odd pockets of medieval buildings and atmospheric narrow alleys. There are admittedly few sights of great architectural interest but it is home to some of Spain's best an: the monarchs acquired outstanding picture collections which went on to form the basis of the Prado museum. This has long ensured the city a place on any European art-tour and the more so since the 1990s arrival of the Reina Sofia and Thyssen-Bornemisza galleries state-of-the-art homes to fabulous arrays of modern Spanish painting (including Picasso's Guernica) and European and American masters.
Galleries and sights aside though the capital has enough going for it in its own city life and style to ensure a diverting stay. You soon realize that it's the inhabitants - some 5 300 000 Madrilenos - that are the capital's key attraction: hanging out in the traditional cafes and Chocolaterias or the summer terrazas;. packing the lanes of the Sunday Rastro flea market or playing hard and very very late in a thousand bars clubs discos and tascas. Whatever Barcelona or San Sebastian might claim the Madrid scene remains as it is immortalized in the movies of Pedro Almodovar - vibrant noisy and lots of fun.
The centre is comfortably walkable but Madrid also has a good metro system that serves most places you're likely to want to get to. It runs from 6 am until 1.30 am. The urban bus network is more comprehensive than the metro but also more complicated - trust the transport information stand in the Plaza de Cibeles before the myriad and quickly outdated handouts. Buses run from 6am to 11.30pm but there are also several nightbus lines in the centre from Plaza de Cibeles and Puerta del Sol (midnight-3аm every 30min 3-6am hourly).
The cheapest accommodation is around the Estacion de Atocha though places closest to the station are rather grim and the area can feel somewhat threatening at night A better option is to head up c/Atocha towards Sol to the streets surrounding the buzzing Plaza Santa Ana Prices rise as you reach the Plaza Mayor and Puerta del Sol but een here there are affordable options. Other promising areas include Gran Via where the huge old buildings hide a vast array of hotels and hostales and north of here up noisy c/Fuencarral cowards Chueca and Malsana.
Central Puerta del Sol with its bustling crowds and traffic is as good a place as any to start a tour of Madrid This is officially the centre of the nation a stone slab in the pavement outside the main building on the south side marks Kilometre Zero from where six of Spain's National Routes begin while beneath the streets three of the city's ten metro lines converge A statue of a bear pawing a madrono bush lies on the north side this is both the emblem of the city and a favourite meeting place.
Immediately north of Sol c/de Preciados and c/del Carmen head towards the Gran Via both are pedestrianized and constitute the most popular shopping area in Madrid West c/del Arenal heads directly towards the Opera and Royal Palace but there's more of interest along c/Mayor one of Madrid's oldest thoroughfares which runs southwest through the heart of the medieval city also to end close to the Royal Palace.
Plaza de la Villa and Plaza Mayor
About two-thirds of the way along c/Mayor is the Plaza de la Villa almost a case-book of Spanish architectural development The oldest survivor here is the Torre de los Lujanes. a fifteenth-century building in Mudejar style next in age is the Casa de Cisneros built by a nephew of Cardinal Сisneros in sixteenth-century Plateresque style and to complete the picture is the Ayuntamiento (tours Mon at 5pm; free) begun in the seventeenth century but later remodelled in Baroeque mode Baroque is taken a stage further around the corner in c/S. mJusto where the church of San Miguel shows the unbridled imagination of its eighteenth-century Itilian architects.
Walking straight from the Puerta del Sol to the Plaza de la Villa it's easy to miss altogether the Plaza Mayor the most important architectural and historical landmark in Madrid This almost perfectly preserved extremely beautiful seventeenth-century arcaded square set back from the street was planned by Philip II and Juan Herrera as the public meeting place of the new capital: autos-da-fe (trials of faith) were held by the Inquisition here kings were crowned festivals and demonstrations staged bulls fought and gossip spread the more important of these events would be watched by royalty from the be-frescoed Casa Panaderia named after the bakery that it replaced Along with its popular but pricey cafes the plaza still performs several public functions today in summer it's an outdoor theatre and music stage in autumn a book fair and just before Christmas it becomes a bazaar for festive decorations and religious regalia. The warren of streets surrounding the Plaza Mayor are well worth exploring housing as they do a treasure trove of gleat tapas bars and restaurants.
The Palacio Real
Calle del Arenal ends at the Plaza Isabel II opposite the Teatro Real or Opera House which is separated from the Palacio Real by the newly renovated Plaza de Oriente The chief attraction of the area is the grandiose Palacio Real or Royal Palace (Mon-Fn 9am-5/6pm Sat & Sun 9am-2/3pm free Wed to EU citizens). Built after the earlier Muslim Alcazar burned down on Christmas Day 1734 this was the principal royal residence until Alfonso XIII went into exile in 1931. The present royal family inhabits a more modest residence on the western outskirts of the city using the Palacio Real only on state occasions. The building scores high on statistics it claims more rooms than any other European palace a library with one of the biggest collections of books manuscripts maps and musical scores in the world an armoury with an unrivalled and often bizarre collection of weapons dating back to the fifteenth century and an original pharmacy a curious mixture of alchemist's den and early laboratory its walls lined with jars labelled for various remedies Take your time to contemplate the extraordinary opulence of the place acres of Flemish and Spanish tapestries endless Rococo decoration bejewelled clocks and pompous portraits of the monarchs. In the Sala del Trono (Throne Room) there's a magnificent frescoed ceiling by Tiepolo representing the glory of Spam - an extraordinary achievement for an artist by then in his 70s.