Harry Potter is the name of a series of fantasy novels by British writer J. K. homeenglish/Articles30.htmRowling. Six of seven planned books have been published to date not including the two school books Quidditch Through the Ages and Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. These two are supposed to be two of the school books in the seven original books. The books depict a world of witches and wizards the main character being a young wizard named Harry Potter. The first novel Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (retitled Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone in the United States) was released in 1997. The first four books have been made into films and the fifth movie is due to start filming in February 2006 with an expected release in 2007.
As of 2005 Rowling has written the last chapter of the seventh book. Rowling has also mentioned that the last word of the book would be "scar " which remains to be seen. However she is unsure whether that will be in the final draft in the book as she was asked about it in an interview conducted by fan sites Mugglenet and The Leaky Cauldron.
The Harry Potter books have achieved a profile unparalleled by any other series of books with worldwide sales exceeding 300 million copies. They have been praised for encouraging children and indeed even adults to read while also drawing criticism from some quarters. The books are published by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc (original; distributed in the UK and other Commonwealth countries except Canada) Scholastic and Raincoast Books (original; distributed in Canada).
Publishing history The books have fans of all ages. J. K. Rowling says she did not have any particular age group in mind when she started to write the Harry Potter books; her publishers however initially targeted them at young readers aged 8 to 15. The books have more recently been released in two editions one with the original "children's" cover artwork and one with artwork more consciously aimed at adult readers. Additionally as the series has developed Rowling's writing has become more sophisticated and the content of the books has matured as the lead character Harry Potter has grown older. For instance relationships are discussed as an issue for the teenage characters in later books. Accordingly the reading age for the books both in terms of content and style is rising as the series goes on.
The first book was published in the United Kingdom by Bloomsbury a fairly small independent publisher in July 1997. Its initial success was based on some positive reviews and word of mouth. The first three books Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets and Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban all won the Nestle Smarties Book Prize for the 9 to 11 age group. By the time the fourth book Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire was published in 2000 the series had become very high-profile and the launch received much wider publicity in the general media than was usual for a new book. At around the same time Warner Brothers began work on the series of films based on the books. The involvement of a global media conglomerate led to more concerted efforts to maximise the value of the Harry Potter franchise. The first film based on the first book was released in 2001 and was accompanied by video games and other branded merchandise.
The hype escalated with the publication of the next two books in the series Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix and Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince with midnight launch parties at hundreds of bookshops in the UK simultaneous launch events around the English-speaking world and intense media interest leading to unprecedented first-day sales in the UK US and elsewhere. The series is immensely popular around the world in its many translations. Such was the clamour to read the book around the world that the English-language edition of Order of the Phoenix became the first English-language book ever to top the bookseller list in France.
Cover of the United States edition of Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone retitled Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone for release in the US. According to the author the main character Harry Potter appeared in her head while she was on a train from Manchester to London in 1991. Her favourite place to write the first book was at an Edinburgh cafe table while drinking endless cups of coffee. Sales from the books as well as royalties from films and merchandise have made Rowling a billionaire and the 620th wealthiest person in the world . Rowling is assumed to be richer than Queen Elizabeth II (see J.K. Rowling for an explanation).
Each book chronicles approximately one year in Harry's life at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry where he learns to use magic and brew potions. Harry also learns to overcome many obstacles — magical social and emotional — as he struggles through his adolescence.
Rowling has announced that seven books are planned each a little darker than its predecessor as Harry ages and his nemesis Lord Voldemort gains power. As of December 2005 six books have been published. The latest Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince was published in its English-language version on 16 July 2005. Since the publication of book five Rowling has revealed hints about the plot of future books on her personal website.
Content and writing style The books are written in third person limited omniscient mode with Harry as the central character. The books are generally written from Harry's point of view with short exceptions in Philosopher's Stone Goblet of Fire and Half-Blood Prince. The telling of the story through Harry Potter's perspective is perhaps one of the reasons that many readers feel so close with the character.
Rowling's main strengths as a writer include her ability to drive elaborate and largely seamless plots over a very wide canvas the convincing internal logic of her fantasy world. However while there is much moral subtlety in many scenes in the books the central clash between good and evil is drawn in largely black-and-white terms. Nevertheless as the series develops several characters have faced a choice between doing what is right or what is easy (a central theme) and moral "shades of grey" have been presented. This is especially relevant to characters such as Dolores Umbridge some Ministry of Magic employees and Severus Snape.
Rowling lets the ideas of racism genocide anti-establishment and prejudice find their way in; these are the trademark of Voldemort and his Death Eaters but also occasionally shown in the relationship between wizards the non-magical (or "Muggle") population and magical creatures in the wizarding world who contain some prejudicial baggage such as werewolves giants and centaurs (branded 'half-breeds' by the more bigoted of the wizarding world).
The books have been compared to many well-known works including C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia and J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. They also fit into a British genre of novels about boarding school life (such as Thomas Hughes's Tom Brown's Schooldays) and sections involving the Dursleys Harry's relatives are reminiscent of the works of Roald Dahl. Echoes of Charles Dickens particularly in the naming of characters and Douglas Adams have been pointed out by other readers. At root Harry's origin story is a mythical archetype known around the world: the destined hero sent away as a baby for safekeeping and raised by common folk until he is of an age where he can be told who he really is and what he must do (a motif most famously epitomised in the myth of Oedipus). Readers who are unfamiliar with traditional cultural myths will still recognise the theme; it is the basis for Star Wars and Superman among others.
Aspects of the Harry Potter series have even entered the real world such as Bertie Bott's Every Flavour Beans which inspired an actual product of that name marketed by the Jelly Belly Company. The product named "Bertie Bott's Beans" contains an assortment of twenty different kinds of jelly beans that have been developed to mimic flavours found in the assortment of similar name in the book series including tooty-frooty dirt bubblegum snot grass and the surprisingly realistic "vomit" flavour. Also knitting patterns have been created for the Quidditch Sweater and elf socks.
The books Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone in the United States) Story time: 1981 1991 to 1992 Release: 26 June 1997 (UK); 1 September 1998 (US) US sales: 17 Million. Hardcover 6.1 million Paperback 10.9 million Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets Story time: 1943 1992 to 1993 Release: 2 July 1998 (UK); 2 June 1999 (US) US sales: 14.7 million. Hardcover 7.3 million Paperback 7.5 million Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Story time: 1993 to 1994 Release: 8 July 1999 (UK); 8 September 1999 (US) US sales: 12.8 million. Hardcover 7.6 million Paperback 5.2 million Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Story time: 1944 1994 to 1995 Release: 8 July 2000 (UK/US) US sales: 12.3 million. Hardcover 8.9 million Paperback 3.4 million Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix Story time: 1976 1995 to 1996 Release: 21 June 2003 (UK/US) US sales: 13.7 million. Hardcover 12.2 million Paperback 1.5 million. 5 million in first 24 hours initial printing 8.5 million copies. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Story time:1926 1960 1970 1996 to 1997 Release: 16 July 2005 (UK/US) US Sales: 20 million. 7 million in 24 hours initial printing 10.8 million copies. Title unknown Story time: 1997 to ???? (possibly 1998) Release: unannounced date (probably worldwide) As of 1 January 2006 over three hundred million (300 000 000) copies of Harry Potter books have been sold worldwide.
The books have become popular enough that bookshops worldwide now hold simultaneous "release parties" on the day Harry Potter books are released since the earliest time the books can be sold at retail is 12:01 a.m. GMT (or the equivalent local time at the point of sale).
The Harry Potter books have been translated into many languages. For the English language there exists an adapted American English version of each book with lexical changes like "football" to "soccer" "video recorder" to "VCR" "do his nut" to "go ballistic" and "rubbish bin" to "trash can" and spelling changes like "defence" to "defense".
In 2001 two slim spin-off volumes called Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them by Newt Scamander and Quidditch Through the Ages by Kennilworthy Whisp were published. These were supposedly reproductions of two Hogwarts textbooks owned by Harry complete with notes scribbled in the margins by Harry and his friends. These were written by J. K. Rowling with proceeds going to Comic Relief.
Regarding the existence of Harry Potter novels beyond the seventh Rowling has said that she might write an eighth book some day. If she does she intends it to be a sort of encyclopaedia of the wizarding world containing concepts and snippets of information that were not relevant enough to the novels' plots to be included in them. She has also said that she will not write any sort of "prequel" to the novels since by the time the series ends all the necessary back story will have been revealed. It is currently unknown despite rumours if Rowling will allow other authors to write novels set in the Harry Potter Universe not concerning Harry.
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
The films Movie Poster for Goblet of Fire Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone in the United States) Release: 16 November 2001 Director: Chris Columbus Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets Release: 15 November 2002 Director: Chris Columbus Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban Release: UK: 31 May 2004 USA: 4 June Director: Alfonso Cuaron Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Release: 2005; Philippines and Indonesia: 16 November; Singapore Malaysia Sweden: 17 November; UK USA and other countries: 18 November; Australia: 1 December; Hong Kong: 22 December; Russia: 23 December Director: Mike Newell Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix Release: Expected 1 June 2007 Director: David Yates Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Release: Unknown Director: Unknown Harry Potter 7 (title unknown) Release: Unknown Director: Unknown The first three films ranked 1st  2nd  and 2nd  respectively in worldwide box office grosses for their years of release. They grossed a total of over $2.6 billion worldwide. 
Controversy The books have provoked various kinds of controversy.
Accusations of promoting the occult Some religious groups have attacked the books for allegedly promoting witchcraft or undermining Islam and Christianity. Most of this controversy has occurred in the parts of the United States where religion plays a prominent role in public life. Some claim that children who read the books may begin to view the miracles of God as simply another form of magic. In the United Kingdom Harry Potter's country of origin the controversy has been minor.
According to the American Library Association the Harry Potter novels have been among the 100 most frequently challenged in United States libraries between 1990-2000. The complaints allege that the books have occult or Satanic themes are violent and are anti-family.
Some highly conservative Christian groups in the United States have denounced the series for promoting witchcraft and Satanism. "It contains some powerful and valuable lessons about love and courage and the ultimate victory of good over evil " said Paul Hetrick spokesman for Focus on the Family a national Christian group based in Colorado Springs. "However the positive messages are packaged in a medium — witchcraft — that is directly denounced in Scripture." . The official exorcist of Rome Father Gabriele Amorth believes that the Harry Potter books can be a bad influence on some children by getting them interested in the occult of witchcraft (see Christian views on witchcraft).
Chick Publications produced a comic book tract called "The Nervous Witch" about two teenaged girls who get seriously involved in occult witchcraft and become demonically possessed as a direct result of reading Harry Potter books.
It has been argued that when Pope Benedict XVI was Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith he also condemned the books in a letter expressing gratitude for the receipt of a book on the subject stating they are "a subtle seduction which has deeply unnoticed and direct effects in undermining the soul of Christianity before it can really grow properly."