Walt Whitman. Philosophical basics of his work
When having to think about the philosophy of Americanness who else could come to one's mind other than Walt Whitman. One of the most read most enjoyable writers of American Literature so much debated and gossiped about preceding his own folk's and the world's age by light-years ahead throwing himself in the face of his contemporary readers at last knocking down all the remains of the long-suffered puritan establishments and values that the country has carried as a burden for far too long. One simply cannot exclude Whitman without having to make a comment about his poetry – his art – he simply cannot be ignored for he and his art does not allow that.
The aim of our work is to analyze features of Walt Whitman’s style. We will study his literary techniques such as alliteration anaphora «free» verse etc. In our work we will try to show philosophical basics of his works.
Our tasks are:
- To investigate the uniqueness of his style
- To analyze some of his works in order to characterize his poetic techniques
- To conduct a detailed analysis of philosophical basics of his works
We will also propose some of his poems because we wanted to show peculiarities of his style.
«Leaves of Grass»
If we want to talk about philosophical basics of Walt Whitman we should analyze them all in common because they are all connected and you can find several of them in one poem at the same time.
First of all we will start our investigation with one of his greatest poems «Leaves of Grass».
The title «Leaves of Grass» is used by Whitman to symbolize the immortality of the soul the mechanical universe and that all things are in a state of flux Whitman says in the last chapter:
«I bequeath myself to the dirt to grow from the grass I love»
He loves the grass so much as part of nature assimilates himself to nature and considers the immortality of the soul in nature because of his belief and his own inspiration and individuality.
Whitman's idea of nature can be accepted concerning the world of death since nature is inextricably linked with mortal beings and in harmony with the mind. That greatest harmony is thought to be the immortality of the soul in nature. In other words its harmonization is based on the medieval idea that «The will of God creates nature».
He thought that this is a dark mysterious world and that human beings contribute to the world of death by their domination of nature. The world of human being is a lonely creature in a chaotic universe. Firm in this belief Whitman in his philosophical approach to Nihilism described himself as the immortality of the soul in the great universe. He said in his first chapter:
«I celebrate myself and sing myself
And what I assume you shall assume
For every atom belonging to me as God belongs to you.» (P. 1).
This is the liberation of the mind from the philosophy of a controlling God which was current in the plantation period of J. Edwards (1703–1758). To expound this theme Whitman wrote his poem in which he propounded his ideas.
«The atmosphere is not a perfume
It has no taste of the distillation and it is odorless
It is for my mouth forever I am in love with it
I will go to the bank by the wood and become undisguised and naked
I am mad for it to be in contact with me.» (P. 2).
Whitman's nature is good not evil. The stream of this idea is accepted by J. Rousseau (1712–1778) «As a human nature is good in nature» which is an absolutely optimistic and ever frontier spirit.
Whitman pursues each personal develop – meant by showing how people relate. For example: looking forth on pavement and land or outside of pavement and land «Belonging to the winders of the circuit of circuits.» (P. 78).
From this point of view he looks over the natural phenomenon of circuits and God is defined by the relationship of human nature to the circuits.
Whitman thought that inspiration was equal to the dualism of the soul and the personality and wrote:
«Apart from the pulling and hauling stands what I am
Stand amused complacent compassionating idea unitary
Looks down is erect or bends an arm on an impalpable certain rest.
Looking with side-curved head curious what will come next.
Both in and out of the game and watching and wondering at it.
Backward I see in my own days where I sweated through fog with linguists and contenders.
I have no mocking or arguments I witness and wait.» (P. 6).
Whitman considered the relation of phenomenon and the personality. His mind was not closed to the realities in which his personality asserted the method of the audience and passive state condition and tried to contact the refusing phenomenon.
«Leaves of grass» belongs to no particular accepted form of poetry. Whitman described its form as «a new and national declamatory expression.» Whitman was a poet bubbling with energy and burdened with sensations and his poetic utterances reveal his innovations. His poetry seems to grow organically like a tree. It has the tremendous vitality of an oak. Its growth follows no regular pattern: «Song of Myself» for example seems at first almost recklessly written without any attention to form. Whitman’s poetry like that of most prophetic writers is unplanned disorganized sometimes abortive but nevertheless distinctively his own.
Walt Whitman’s Poetical Techniques
In his poems he used some special poetical techniques.
«Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking»: «'And thenceforward all summer in the sound of the sea.' This use of alliteration of the creates a sound of the sea… which is very effective. This is by no means the only use of alliteration in the poem. Other groupings such as 'sterile sands ' 'briers and blackberries ' 'Listened long and long ' 'sweetest song and songs ' and 'singer solitary' occur throughout the poem» (Kimmel 9/16/96).
Anaphora: repetition of words or phrases at beginnings of lines.
«Crossing Brooklyn Ferry»: «'Others will enter… / Others will watch… / Others will see' and also 'Just as you feel… / Just as you are refresh'd… / Just as you stand… / Just as you look…'» (Barham 9/17/96).
«One of the first cases in which he uses anaphora extensively in Drum-Taps is in the section titled «Poet » in which the first four lines begin with 'I hear ' and lines 8–12 begin with 'I see ' while the entire first 13 lines begin with 'I.' He is creating one large audio and visual image in those lines with each line being a separate image but all tied together by their common beginning. In this case lines all beginning with the same word also help to set up a rhythm as the reader is inclined to read all of the 'I's with the same amount of stress like reading off items on a list. Through the use of anaphora in this way Whitman can express one theme in several different lines with several different ideas while having a definite link between each thought. In the first section of 'Give Me the Splendid Sun ’ Whitman begins the first eleven lines with 'Give me.' Although in each line he is asking for a different thing the entire thought expressed in the lines together is his desire for 'nature's primal sanities.' With the common beginning in these lines he is expressing all of his values at once in eleven lines with eleven different ideas» (Minis 9/17/96).
Definition: verse that while free of rhyme and a consistent rhythm may employ other structural and sound elements such as anaphora and chiasmus.
Whitman may have picked up on Emerson's line in «The Poet»: «For it is not meters but a meter-making argument that makes a poem.»
But he also may have found models in «Proverbial Philosophy » a free verse poem that Tupper published in 1838 and in a poem by George Lippard (Reynolds).
«In many of Whitman's poems like Children of Adam he lists many things at once. In Children of Adam section 9 he lists over 80 parts of the body both male and female. He does this listing technique again in Song of the Open Road when he tells of all the things he passes and sees on his journey» (Baldwin 9/17/96)
They show a childish joy in naming things (Matthiessen 518).
Perhaps they also betray a desire to incorporate everything in a poem as Melville tried to do in Moby-Dick.
Whitman may have borrowed the idea from contemporary travel literature including books called Mississippi in Gobs and New York in Chunks (Reynolds).
«In 'Drum-Taps' the smaller passages which make up the whole poem seem to give all different perspectives of the war. The perspective of the mother father child wound dresser slave woman and even a banner are all given. In turn the reader is fed a catalog of various feelings about war. Also in 'Drum-Taps' and particularly in the passage 'First O Songs for a Prelude ' there is a catalog. Whitman lists and lists all different people with varying occupations and how they are getting ready for war. Thy lawyer the mechanic and salesman are all mentioned. It would be easy to see Whitman’s use of the catalog as simply 'show[ing] childish joy in naming things' (Matthiessen 518). However I see it as Whitman's way of presenting universality. Everyone is going through this same event and everyone is feeling emotions about the war. The catalog shows common links among humans» (Plonk 9/19/96).
Definition: a mirror pattern in words sounds or other elements.
See «Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking » lines 71–74: «SOOTHE! Soothe! Soothe!» / CLOSE on its wave soothes the wave BEHIND / And again another BEHIND embracing and lapping everyone CLOSE / But my love SOOTHES not me not me.»
See «By the Bivouac's fitful flame»: «By the Bivouac's fitful flame… / A procession… / A solemn and slow procession… / By the Bivouac's fitful flame» (Daigneault 9/20/96).
See Psalm 124:7: «Our soul is ESCAPED as a bird out of the SNARE of the fowlers: the SNARE is broken and we are ESCAPED.»
Circles and Cycles
Drum-Taps: «He begins the poem with a short prelude and then begins telling of the year 1861 and how all the men were having to leave their jobs and wives to go fight in the war. Then he starts telling about the war itself. He describes cavalries crossing fords and army corps marching to battle. In one section he speaks of a soldier who watches his friend get fatally wounded. The soldier holds a vigil all night for his friend and then buries him when he dies. In another section he describes a soldier's family–his mother father and sister–when they receive a letter telling them that he has been injured in battle. Whitman brings out the true emotion of the families during this time. After describing all of the different parts to the war at the end of the poem Whitman comes full circle as he does in all his works by declaring that the war is over and that there is peace throughout the country. In this manner Whitman completes his poetic story and the reader is fulfilled» (Jake man 9/19/96).
«Passage to India»: «O…Of you…Of you…Of you…O»
Psalm 70:1–5: «Make haste…. Let… Let… Let… Make haste.»
Whitman had written sensational stories; visionary works nationalistic works biblical stories and works on social issues.
«If Leaves of Grass was the era's most expansive poem continuing the largest variety of voices and topics it was largely because it was written by one who had unabashedly tried his hand at virtually every genre that had been popularized by previous American writers» (Reynolds 106).
Section 9 of «Crossing Brooklyn Ferry» is a mirror image of Section 3 except that mood of Section 9 is imperative and that of Section 3 is indicative.
Still pictures suggest immortality of images as on Grecian Urn and may reflect interest in photography. Whitman uses unpoetic objects and makes them poetic.
He also uses outrageous analogies: «the cow crunching with depressed head surpasses any statue» resembles Thoreau's description of the «cheap and natural music of the cow» in Walden.
Drum-Taps:» Whitman uses [phrases] like 'the young men falling in and arming / The mechanics arming (the trowel the jack-plane the blacksmith's hammer toast aside with precipitation).' This use of imagery allows Whitman to make descriptive scenes that the reader can attach himself to and see» (Aron 9/19/96).
«Another technique Whitman makes use of is that of imagery: 'We primeval forests felling we the rivers stemming vexing we and piercing deep the mines within… we the virgin soil up heaving…' The extensive use of imagery serves to widen the reader's scope of comprehension for the picture that Whitman is painting. The content is driven by the images like still photographs coming together to form a film» (Premakumar 9/17/96).
Lines in «Crossing Brooklyn Ferry» suggest tides.
Length of lines in Section 1 suggests flood tide because each is longer than the one preceding it.
Sections also suggest flood tide because they grow longer in groups of three: a a+b a+b+c d d+e d+e+f g g+h g+h+i
Elsewhere Whitman often achieves an aural effect by writing increasingly longer lines suggesting expansion of thought.
«In most of Whitman's poems the pattern is not rhythmic yet the pattern lies in the length of the lines. In one verse the first line is of typical length and the second line is extended a little longer than the first. The pattern continues with the third and fourth lines each becoming longer than their predecessor. The reason seems to be to build up a climax in each of Whitman's verses and the fifth and final line is the conclusion of the verse.