Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine
Dragomanov National Pedagogical University
Institute of foreign philology
English philology department
Report of Theoretical phonetic
405 En group
I. The nature of English Word Stress
II. Types of English Word Stress
III. Word Stress tendencies
IV. Word Stress functions
V. Variation in word stress
VI. English Word Stress - Does It Really Matter?
Word stress is not used in all languages. Some languages Japanese or French for example pronounce each syllable with eq-ual em-pha-sis. Other languages English for example use word stress.
Word stress is your magic key to understanding spoken English. Native speakers of English use word stress naturally. Word stress is so natural for them that they don't even know they use it. Non-native speakers who speak English to native speakers without using word stress encounter two problems:
1. They find it difficult to understand native speakers especially those speaking fast.
2. The native speakers may find it difficult to understand them.
So in this report we will focus our attention on the accentual patterns of English words. The sequence of syllables in the word is not pronounced identically. The syllable or syllables which are uttered with more prominence than the other syllables of the word are said to be stressed or accented. The correlation of varying prominences of syllables in a word is understood as the accentual structure of the word or its stress pattern.
I. The nature of English Word Stress
Any word spoken in isolation has at least one prominent syllable. We perceive it as stressed. Stress in the isolated word is termed ws stress in connected speech is termed sentence stress. Stress indicated by placing a stress mark before the stressed syllable: Stress is defined differently by different authors. B. A. Bogortsky for instance defined stress as an increase of energy accompan by an increase of expiratory and articulatory activity. D. Jones fined stress as the degree of force which is accompanied by a stress force of exhalation and gives an impression of loudness. H. Sweet stated that stress is connected with the force of breath. Later however P. Jones wrote that “stress or prominence is effected by inherent sonority vowel and consonant length and by intonation.”’ A. C. Gison also admits that a more prominent syllable is accompanied pitch changes in the voice quality and quantity of the accented sounds.[2;179]
In disyllabic and polysyllabic words different syllables possess different degrees of special prominence in different positions in relation to the beginning middle and end of words.
Word stress (WS) can be defined as the singling out of one or more syllables in a word which is accompanied by the change of the force of utterance pitch of the voice qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the sound which is usually a vowel. The analysis of WS can be carried out according to the following parameters:
(i) the nature of English word-stress;
(ii) its degree and syllabic location;
(iii) its functions;
(iv) basic stress patterns of the English words.[3;171]
If we compare stressed and unstressed syllables in the two contract we may note that in the stressed syllable:
(a) the force of utterance is greater which is connected with more energetic articulation;
(b) the pitch of the voice is higher which is connected with stronger tenseness of the vocal cords and the walls of the resonance chamber
(c) the quantity of the vowel is greater a vowel becomes longer;
(d) the quality of the vowel !& in the stressed syllable is different from the quality of this vowel in the unstressed position in why it is more narrow than.
On the auditory level a stressed syllable is the part of the word which has a special prominence. It is produced by a greater loud and length modifications in the pitch and quality. Their physic correlates are: intensity duration frequency and the formant structure. All these features can be analyzed on the acoustic level.
Word stress can be defined as the singling out of one or more s tables in a word which is accompanied by the change of the force utterance pitch of the voice qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the sound which is usually a vowel.
In different languages one of the factors constituting word stress is usually more significant than the others. According to the mo important feature different types of word stress are distinguished different languages.
If special prominence in a stressed syllable or syllables achieved mainly through the intensity of articulation such type stress is called dynamic or force stress.[2;179]
Stress can be studied from the point of view of production and of perception. While producing stressed syllables speakers use more muscular energy than they do for unstressed syllables. From the perceptual point of view stressed syllables are recognized as stressed because they are more prominent than unstressed syllables. Phoneticians claim that at least four different factors are important in making a syllable prominent:
1) listeners seem to feel stressed syllables louder than unstressed; thus loudness is a component of WS (Peter Roach explains that if one syllable in a sequence of identical syllables e.g. ba:ba:ba:ba: is made louder than the others it will be heard as stressed);
2) 2) if one of the syllables in the above-given “nonsense” word is made longer that syllable is heard stressed so the length of the syllables is another important factor in making prominence;
3) every syllable is said on some pitch (related to the frequency of vibration of the vocal cords which is an essential perceptual characteristic of speech) . If one syllable is said with high pitch as compared to the others then it will be heard as stressed;
4) a syllable can be heard prominent if it contains a vowel that is different in quality from neighbouring vowels. If one of the vowels in the “nonsense word” is changed the “odd” syllable: will be heard as stressed.
The phonetic manifestation of stress varies from language to language. Indifferent languages one of the factors constituting word stress is usually more significant than the others. According to the most salient feature the following types of word stress are distinguished in different languages:
1) dynamic or force stress if special prominence in a stressed syllable(syllables) is achieved mainly through the intensity of articulation;
2) musical or tonic stress if special prominence is achieved mainly through the change of pitch or musical tone.
3) quantitative stress if special prominence is achieved through the changes in the quantity of the vowels which are longer in the stressed syllables than in the unstressed ones.
4) qualitative stress if special prominence is achieved through the changes in the quality of the vowel under stress. Vowel reduction is often used as a manipulation of quality in unstressed syllables.
II. Types of English Word Stress
Types of English word stress according to its degree. One of the ways of reinitiating the prominence of syllables is manipulating the degree of stress. There is controversy about degrees of WS in English and their terminology. Strictly speaking polysyllabic word has as many degrees of stress as there are syllables in it. Designating strongest syllable by 1 the second strongest by 2 etc. we may represent the distribution Jesses in the following examples:
But from a linguistic point i.e. for the purposes of differentiating words from each
and identifying them the fourth the fifth and other degrees of lexical stress are redundant English while the distinctive and recognitive relevance of the third degree of stress is a objective point. The majority of British phoneticians (D. Jones Kingdon A. C. Gimson among them) and Russian phoneticians (V. A. Vassilyev Shakhbagova) consider that there are three degrees of word-stress in English:
• primary — the strongest
• secondary — the second strongest partial and
• weak — all the other degrees.
The syllables bearing either primary or secondary stress are termed stressed while syllables with weak stress are called somewhat inaccurately unstressed. American linguists stingiest four degrees of word stress adding the so-called tertiary stress . Contrary stress differs from tertiary that it usually occurs on the third or fourth pre-tonic syllable and tertiary is always post-tonic e.g. administrative dictionary. category.[3;173]
English language not only through the increase of intensity but also through the changes in the vowel quantity consonant and vowel quality and pitch of the voice. Russian word stress is not only dynamic but mostly quantitative and qualitative. The length of the Russian vowels always depends on the position in a word. The quality of unaccented vowels in Russian may differ greatly from the quality of the same vowels under stress. Stress difficulties peculiar to the accentual structure of the English language are connected with the vowel special and inherent prominence. In identical positions the intensity of English vowels is different. The highest in intensity is /a/ then u: u e u
The quantity of long vowels and diphthongs can be preserved (a) pretonic and (b) post-tonic position. All English vowels may occur in accented syllables the only exception is / which is never stressed. English vowels /i u u/ tend to occur in unstressed syllables. Syllables with the syllabic m n/ are never stressed.
Unstressed diphthongs may partially lose their glide quality. In stressed syllables English stops have complete closure fricatives have full friction features of forties/lenis distinction are clearly defined.
Stress can be characterized as fixed and free. In languages with fixed type of stress the place of stress is always the same.
In English and Russian word-stress is free that is it may fall any syllable in a word:
a) idea sarcastic archaic
b) placard railway
Stress in English and in Russian is not only free but also shifting. In both languages the place of stress may shift which helps t0 differentiate different parts of speech e.g. linsult—to inlsult import—to imiport.
When the shifting of word-stress serves to perform distinctive function V. Vassil.
Stress performs not only distinctive function it helps to constitute and recognize words and their forms (constitutive and recognitive functions).
Strictly speaking a polysyllabic word has as many degrees of stress as there are syllables in it. American and English phoneticians give the following pattern of stress distribution in the word examination. They mark the strongest syllable with primary accent with the numeral 1 then goes 2 3 etc.[2;180]
English word-stress is traditionally defined as dynamic but in fact
the special prominence of the stressed syllables is manifested in the English language not only through the increase of intensity but also through the
changes in the vowel quantity consonant and vowel quality and pitch of the voice.
‘Most words of more than four syllables have 2 stresses: primary (nuprefixes and entry. The primary stress falls either on the third or the second syllable from the end and the secondary stress falls on the syllable separated from the nuclear syllable by one unstressed syllable: pro-ition recog ition etc.
The place of word-stress in English compound words principally de“rewrite” on the semantic factor i. e. the element which determines the mean-of the whole compound has a primary stress. But most of the compound possess the nuclear stress on the l element: ‘bookcase ‘diligence etc whereas compound adjectives have as a rule primary stress on element of the compound ‘well- ?oiown ibsent-- jinded etc.[1;34]
III. Word Stress tendencies
In spite of the fact that word stress in English is free there are certain factors that determine the location and different degree of it. Prof. V. A. Vassilyev describes them as follows:
• the recessive tendency;
• the rhythmic tendency;
• the retentive tendency and
• the semantic factor
The first and the oldest of the English lexical stress tendencies (characteristic of all Germanic languages) known as the recessive tendency originally consisted in placing lexical stress on the initial syllable of nouns adjectives and verbs derived from them and on the root syllable of words which belonged to other parts of speech and had a prefix. In most cases prefixes lost their referential meaning since then with the result that recessive stress in present-day English of two subtypes:
1) unrestricted: when stress falls on the initial syllable provided it is not a prefix which has no referential meaning. A great majority of native English words of Germanic origin are stressed this way: father mother husband ‘wonder
2) restricted: when stress falls on the root of the native English words with a prefix which has no referential meaning now: a’mong be’come before fo ’get etc.
It is this tendency that determined the incidence of stress in a huge number of disyllabic and trisyllabic French words which had been borrowed into English until the 1 5th century (during and after the Norman Conquest).
The presence in English of a great number of short (disyllabic and trisyllabic) words defamed the development of the so-called rhythmic tendency which results in alternating stressed and unstressed syllables. Borrowed polysyllabic words developed a secondary stress on the syllable separated from the word-final primary stress by one unstressed syllable. These words began to be pronounced in isolation on the model of short phrases in which a stressed syllable alternates with an unstressed one: pronunciation.
The retentive tendency consists in the retention of the primary stress on the parent word: person — personal or more commonly the retention of the secondary stress on the parent word: ‘personal — 1perso’nalily. The difference between constant accent and ‘ retentive stress consists in that the former remains on the same syllable in all the g forms of a word or in all the derivatives from one and the same root whereas retinal stress in a derivative falls on the same syllable on which it falls in the parent word while i other derivatives from the same root it may be shifted e.g.: