Education in Russia



1. Development of Russian Education System in the end of XX – the beginning of XXI centuries

1.1 Humanistic character of modern formation

1.2 Reform of education in Russia the beginnings of XXI century

1.3 Results of a state policy in sphere of education during last decades

2. Education System in Russian Federation

2.1 Continuous education

2.2 Characteristic of education system in Russia

2.2.1  Requirements and educational organizations

2.2.2 Preschool educational establishments and schools

2.2.3 Middle professional education

2.2.4 High school

2.2.5 Private and alternative educational establishments





Nowadays the question of surviving in new social-economical conditions becomes one of the most important. Education must prepare a modern man for the reality of life. Education system in any country should help to solve the main problems of social economical and cultural development of human society. That’s why the role of school as a basic part of education and its ability to be flexible is of great importance.

Unfortunately the attempts to copy American experience in teaching without understanding all its advantages and disadvantages has given us the results that we did not intend to get. At the same time many Russian people brought up according to the humanist principles that are traditional for Russian culture realized this mistake and began paying more attention to the very personality of students and to the latest psychological researches.

In fact the person is inquisitive by the nature and the satisfaction of information famine for a usual person is almost the same as the need for food. Therefore really talented teacher aspires to wake and fix this thirst for knowledge shows the pupils how it is possible to receive satisfaction in the process of knowledge. However the teacher who will set such a problem will inevitably collide with a number of difficulties especially if he works at an ordinary school. Therefore in a private school where as everywhere in conditions of the market approach " all is made for the client " such people find way to realize their ideas. In fact if children find being at school pleasant their parents understanding that it is not vain will spend the money easier.

The history of humanity testifies that education and society are inseparable. All global problems (economic social political culturological demographic ecological etc.) with which the society collides anyhow have influence on the sphere of formation and education. For example in connection to the economic difficulties experienced by many countries including the Russian Federation state financing of the education system decreases that conducts to insufficient quality of material equipment of teaching and educational establishments to decrease in quality of preparation of pedagogical staff. The ecological conditions on the planet have also destroying influence on health of a person since the very birth. As a result the abilities to training are reduced; there is the need for creation of educational establishments of correctional improving character. During wars ethnic conflicts that take place in many countries problems of formation were put off to the background; in front of the threat of danger of death the possibility of going to school or a kindergarten catastrophically loses its importance.

But on the other hand education defines many aspects of a person’s life in a society. Scientists emphasize social value of education as an important transformation force of the society. It is known that for an output from the crisis experienced now by the world civilization radical changes in consciousness behaviour of people are necessary. To transform the private world of an individual on the basis of humanistic ideals purposefully to form moral qualities to rise a level of culture and vocational training of the person are the functions of modern education. The social role of education consists of the opportunity to influence to the development of tendencies in the society to prepare the next generation for the solving of global or local problems of the present to learn them to predict it and if it is required to warn their consequences.

For each person education more or less expresses personal values. The process of getting education which in the highly developed countries takes a quarter of a vital way of the modern person but at the same time it makes his life substantial and spiritualized opens his various emotions satisfies needs for knowledge dialogue self-affirmation. While a person gets education all the potential abilities of the person develop his self-realization is carried out his image is formed. With the help of formation the person adapts for life in the society acquires knowledge and skills necessary for this.

1. Development of Russian Education System in the end of XX – the beginning of XXI centuries

1.1 Humanistic character of modern formation


Russian natural-science education is estimated very highly and is considered to be one of the best in the world. The benefit of it can be seen in the brilliant results of the Russian schoolboys on the international Olympiads and also in the high level of preparation of the Russian employees working at foreign universities or firms in comparison with the western colleagues. Nevertheless this point of view has also opponents. They refer to a low level of mass literacy of the Russian population especially rural on low erudition of inhabitants of many small cities situated far from capital mega cities. However there are all bases in the estimation of scientific-educational potential of this or that country to conduct comparison by the best most educated part of the population.

The changes in social and economic sphere of a public life have put many countries of the world including Russia before the necessity of reforming educational system. Reforms of education becoming a part of social policy of the modern states are directed to:

- Updating of all parts of the system from preschool establishments up to universities;

- Perfection of the maintenance methods and means of teaching and educational work;

- Improvement of preparation and improvement of professional skill of the pedagogical staff.

These ideas are put in the basis of state policy of the Russian Federation in the field of humanistic education. They found reflection in the Constitution of the Russian Federation (1993) the Law of the Russian Federation «About education» (1992). In documents it is declared that education should be carried out in interests of person society and state. It is outlined that moving on the way of humanization of society it is possible to hope that education will become one of the most important needs of the person and favorable conditions for realization of this need for development of the general and professional culture of the person will be created. The main principles of the state policy in the field of education in Russia are humanistic character of formation priority of universal values lives and health of the person freedom of development of the person; protection of national cultures cultural traditions of peoples of Russia; general availability etc.


1.2 Reform of education in Russia the beginnings of XXI century

education russia reform

It is possible that the given estimations are too much subjective but thus it is obvious that Russian education system is still too theoretical and poorly aimed at practical application. It is insufficient for the satisfaction of the need of flexible education in modern conditions.

According to the Concept of modernization Russian Formations till 2010 approved by the government on 25 October 2001 education is supposed to be reformed in two stages:

1. At the first stage (2001-2003) it was necessary in to restore the responsibility of the state in the sphere of education with an output on minimal necessary budgetary specifications. The decision of socially significant problems and modernization of education was developed and occurs in a context of the general process of reforming of the various parties of a life in close interaction with other reforms simultaneously being for them a source of maintenance necessary personnel resource.

1.  At the second stage (2004-2005) it is necessary to realize the measures that passed experimental check in particular at the first stage and after the estimation of results to introduce new models of education its organization and financings. At the second stage the expansion of resource maintenance will be lead.

In 2006-2010 the first results of modernization of formation should be designated such as real improvement of quality of the general and vocational training and decrease in social intensity in a society.

On the basis of increase of the salary of workers in the sphere of education the growth of social status and improvement of qualitative structure will be provided.

Such a reform is necessary for Russia education. At existing system it is impossible to expect essential increasing of the human capital which basically defines prospects of development of all economy. Scientists of the world have already come to a conclusion that the most important resource of economy is the human one possession which in scales of the country defines its position in the world.

1.3  Results of a state policy in sphere of education during last decades


According to the statistic data the population of 2002 there’re more than 109 4 million persons in Russia in the age of 15 years have basic general and is higher education that makes 90 2 % of this age group. Since 1989 the number of persons with such educational level has increased for 18 3 million or on 20 %. Thus 76 5 % of the group of the population in the age of 15 years have average (full) general education and 59 % have vocational training. In total since 1989 to 2002 the number of specialists with higher education has increased up to 6 6 million. The number of the persons having post-grade education (finished postgraduate study doctoral studies Internship) and of the persons having secondary education has also increased for 5 % (up to 1 million).

By the beginning of 2002 the quantity of students in the country has grown in comparison with 1990 in 2 1 times that makes 5 95 million person. Similar tendencies of growth of number were observed in higher educational institutions (in 2 times).

Besides the quantitative estimations it is necessary to accept attention quality standards of education system. So it is obvious that the level of knowledge and skills which are received by pupils are as high as it’s demanded.

However despite of the mentioned above tendencies in Russia a significant part of graduates don’t work on their specialties. The mentioned above processes of employment of the population with higher education a rate of unemployment on the given category for last 10 years practically has not changed. The basic growth of unemployment falls at the population with the average general education.

2.  Modern Education System of Russian Federation


2.1 Continuous education

The question whether it is possible to be taught receive formation once for all life is not new for the modern society. The idea of continuous (lifelong) training has arisen in the remote past but humanity began to test sharp necessity for its realization in the end of XX century. It shows the dynamism of social and economic and spiritual development of the modern society. To correspond to requirements of promptly varying society the person should fill up expand specify constantly luggage of knowledge raise his general and professional culture and develop the creative potential.

In 80th in documents of the international organizations (the UNESCO the Roman club etc.) studying the conditions and prospects of development of world education system the concept of continuous formation was issued. The essence of the concept consists of the idea of "a training society” lifelong education a person satisfying his needs in continuous perfection and self-realization.

Originally the idea of continuous formation was developed as a problem of education of adults. Thus the theses of modern psychology that development of the person is not limited to frameworks of the childhood were taken into account. It was supposed that continuous formation will facilitate for the person change of social roles during the different periods of a life will support and improve the quality of an individual and collective life by personal social and professional development. In the modern concept continuous formation is considered as the constant form of all human life since the early age.

Continuous education is the activity of the person focused on purchase of knowledge development of all parties and abilities of his person including formation of skill to study and preparation for execution of various social and professional duties and also for participation in social development as in scale of the country and of the world.

Main principles of continuous formation can be formulated as follows:

- Orientation of educational system to the person to his individual and base needs;

- Wide democratism of educational system availability openness of any step and form of education to everyone in spite of the person’s sex social status nationality physical condition etc.;

- Fast reaction of educational system to features of interests of various categories of the population and also styles and rates of training;

- Development of various forms of the educational services allowing to give education in a way convenient for people in necessary volume in a suitable place at any time;

- Unity of formal and informal kinds (self-supporting rates circles clubs on interests etc.) of education creation of "an educational field” which will transform the society into "training";

- Use of electronic technology with a view of maintenance of reception with people getting education at any stage of their vital way.

Now the system of continuous formation which should provide interaction of all factors of formation of the person is almost fulfilled. Nowadays continuous education becomes a mass movement in which study work and leisure of people are integrated.

2.2 Characteristics of education system in Russia


2.2.1 Requirements and educational organizations

Modern and future employers are interested in such worker who is allocated the following qualities:

- To think independently and to solve various problems (i.e. to apply the received knowledge to their decision);

- To possess creative thinking;

- To possess the rich lexicon based on deep understanding of humanitarian knowledge.

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