Qualitative Analysis Essay Research Paper Qualitative analysis

Темы по английскому языку » Qualitative Analysis Essay Research Paper Qualitative analysis Скачать

Qualitative Analysis Essay Research Paper

Qualitative analysis is used in the determination of the identity of a

substance. It is different from quantitative analysis which deals with the

determination of the amount of a substance. In this experiment qualitative

analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not a sample contains a

certain ion. When using this method an unknown and a reactant are mixed. The

result of the reaction leads to a conclusion about the presence or absence of

certain ions in the unknown. Many ions react in similar ways and although the

addition of one reagent to an unknown may not identify the ion it limits the

possibilities as to what the ion could be. A sequence of reactions used to

analyze a sample is called a scheme and it usually requires a large number of

reagents and separation steps. For this experiment the unknown may contain

anywhere from 2 to all of the following cations and anions: Cations Anions Ag+

Cl- Ba2+ SO42- Fe3+ PO43- Cu2+ Cr3+ The following reagents are used to identify

the ions: 1M H2SO4 2M HCl 2M NH4OH (labeled as NH4+) 2M NaOH .1M Ba(NO3)2

(labeled as .1M Ba2+) .1M AgNO3 (labeled as .1M Ag+) The first four are used to

identify the cations and the last two used in conjunction with the first four

are used to identify the anions. The identification of the ions is mainly based

on solubilities. This means that something must be known about the solubility

characteristics of the different ions in the presence of the available reagents.

The point of the first part of the experiment is to learn which reagents cause

the ions to form precipitates and which reagents dissolve the precipitates

formed by the ions. This information is used to make the flow charts for the

identification on the unknown ions. For example it is important to know that a

certain reagent will dissolve the precipitate formed by one ion while it will

not dissolve the precipitate formed by another ion. This can be used to

distinguish between two different precipitates present in a solution or to

confirm which ion formed the precipitate and therefore was present in the

solution. When carrying out the reactions avoid adding an excess of reagent to

the solution. This is because some precipitates redissolve in an excess of the

reagent. Therefore in cases where one drop of reagent produces a precipitate 3

or more drops could completely dissolve the precipitate without it ever being

visible to the eye. This would cause a large error in the scheme developed to

identify the unknown ions. Experimental: The first part of the experiment

consists of reacting the cations and anions with the reagents in order to see

what the reaction will result in (precipitate or no precipitate). The cations

were each reacted with the first four reagents listed in the introduction

(H2SO4 HCl NH4+ and NaOH). Then the anions were each reacted with Ba2+ and

Ag+. This was done by placing 2 drops of the ion in the test tube and then

adding 2 drops of reagent. Each cation was reacted with each of the 4 reagents

before moving on to the next cation to be tested. Prior to performing the

reactions a chart was made like the one in the data and calculations section.

As each reaction was performed the chart was filled in with the observation of

what happened. If there was no change NR was written in the chart for ?no

reaction.? If a precipitate formed the color of the precipitate was written

in the chart. If there was no precipitate but there was a color change in the

solution that was also recorded. As each reaction was carried out it was

sometimes difficult to determine whether a precipitate formed or not. If there

was uncertainty the test tubes had to be placed into the centrifuge in order to

separate the precipitates from the solution. There are some very important

things to remember when using the centrifuge. First when tubes are placed in

the centrifuge a tube with an approximately equal volume of solution should be

placed exactly opposite each sample tube to counterbalance it (use a test tube

filled with an equivalent amount of water if necessary). Second the centrifuge

should come to a stop before it is opened and the test tubes removed. This is to

avoid injury. Once the tubes were removed from the centrifuge it was obvious

whether there was a precipitate present or not. If a solid has settled onto the

bottom or side of the test tube there was a precipitate present. If the tube

appears to contain the same solution as before the test tube was placed in the

centrifuge no reaction occurred. The next part of the experiment consists of

determining which reagents dissolve certain precipitates. This information can

be especially helpful when determining the ions present in the unknown. The

precipitates tested were AgCl BaSO4 and Ag3(PO4). They were reacted with HCl

H2SO4 NH4OH and NaOH. This was done by making the precipitate using the

information from the first chart and then adding 2 drops of reagent. For

example the precipitate AgCl was made by reacting Ag+ with HCl. Four samples of

this were prepared and each of the reagents was added to the samples to see if

the precipitate dissolved. A chart was filled in with the results of the

reactions. In the final part of the experiment the unknown was tested to

determine which ions were present in it. This was done using flow charts created

with the information from part 1 of the experiment (see data and calculations

section). To test for the ions in unknown #2 it was first made into a solution

by adding 25 mL of distilled water to the sample in a 100 mL beaker. It was

mixed until all of the solid dissolved. To speed up the dissolving process the

beaker was held in the palm of the hand in order to slightly heat the solution.

Once the solution was ready it was tested for the ions by following the flow

charts. For each step 2 drops of reagent was added to 2 drops of unknown

solution. To test for the cations the cation flow chart was followed. First

HCl was added to the solution. There was no reaction so H2SO4 was added to

another sample of the unknown solution. This also resulted in no reaction so

NaOH was added to another sample of the solution. A rusty-brown precipitate

appeared which meant either PO43- or Cu2+ was present. To determine which one

of these ions was present NH4+ was added to the solution and a rust-colored

precipitate formed. This confirmed the presence of Fe3+. Next the unknown had

to be tested for anions. The anion flow chart was followed. 2 drops of unknown

were reacted with Ba2+ and there was no reaction. 2 more drops of unknown were

reacted with Ag+ and white and tan precipitates formed. H2SO4 was added to the

test tube containing the precipitates and a white precipitate was left. This

confirmed that PO43- was present but dissolved when the H2SO4 was added (as was

found in part 1 of the experiment) leaving the Cl-. Therefore the anions

present were Cl- and PO43-. Data and Calculations: The data charts and the flow

charts are on the following pages. Unknown #2 contains Fe3+ Cl- PO43-. Net

ionic equations for precipitates and reactions on flow charts: Ag+ + Cl- ? AgCl

Ba2+ + SO42- ? Ba SO4 Fe3+ + 3OH- ? Fe (OH)3 Cu2+ + 2OH- ? Cu (OH)2 Cr3+ +

3OH- ? Cr (OH)3 3Ag+ + PO43- ? Ag3(PO4) Ag3(PO4) + H2SO4 ? Ag2(SO4) + H3PO4

Thought process for flow charts: 2 separate flow charts had to be made one for

the cations and one for the anions. Starting with the cations the flow chart

must begin by listing all cations possibly present because the unknown can

contain any number of them. HCl was the first reagent added on the flow chart

because it only produced a precipitate with one of the cations Ag+. This was

determined using the data chart from part 1 of the experiment where the

precipitates formed with each reagent were clearly delineated. By beginning the

flow chart with reagents that produce fewer precipitates and ending it with the

ones that produce more the chart was easier to follow during the testing for

ions. Therefore the next reagent used on the chart was H2SO4. Since the Ag+

precipitated out as AgCl the ions left to react with H2SO4 were Ba2+ Fe3+

Cu2+ and Cr3+ (these were the ions that were left unreacted by the HCl). By

referring to the data chart from part 1 of the lab it was found that H2SO4 only

formed a precipitate with Ba2+(BaSO4). This meant that the Fe3+ Cu2+ and Cr3+

ions were left unreacted. NaOH was added to these ions and it formed a

rust-colored precipitate with Fe3+ while it formed a blue precipitate with

Cu2+. To confirm whether the precipitate was from Fe3+ or Cu2+ NH4+ was added

to the unknown. If a rusty-brown precipitate appeared the ion present was

Fe3+(Fe(OH)3). If no precipitate formed but the solution turned dark blue Cu2+

was present. The only ion left unreacted after the NaOH was added was Cr3+. If a

bluish-white precipitate formed when NH4+ was added to the Cr3+ it confirmed

the presence of Cr3+(Cr(NH4)3). The anion flow chart began with all three of the

anions listed (SO42- Cl- PO43-). Ba2+ was the first reagent added because it

formed a precipitate with only one of the ions SO42-(BaSO4). The ions left

unreacted were Cl- and PO43-. Ag+ was added to these. At this point a white

precipitate could form with Cl-(AgCl) or a yellow precipitate could form with

PO43-(Ag3(PO4)). If the precipitate was purely white the ion was Cl-. This was

confirmed by adding H2SO4 to the precipitate which would result in no reaction.

This is because H2SO4 does not dissolve AgCl (from part 1 of the experiment).

Then the addition of NH4+ would dissolve the precipitate and prove that only Cl-

was present. However if the unknown contained both Cl- and PO43- both

precipitates would form but the two colors of the precipitates would be

indistinguishable from each other. A yellow precipitate would be seen but it

would be impossible to tell if there was also a white precipitate present.

Therefore H2SO4 would again be added to the precipitates. If a white

precipitate appeared it would mean that PO43- had been present but it was

dissolved by the H2SO4. It would leave only the AgCl precipitate visible (H2SO4

dissolves Ag3(PO4) but not AgCl) but because the precipitate originally had a

yellow color to it it would be known that both the Cl- and the PO43- ions were

present in the unknown solution. If the solution had no precipitate left (turned

clear) when the H2SO4 was added to the yellowish precipitate it would indicate

that only PO43- was present in the solution. This is because H2SO4 dissolves

Ag3(PO4) and there were no other precipitates left in the solution to be seen.

Results and Discussion: In conclusion unknown #2 contained Fe3+ Cl- PO43-.

This was determined using qualitative analysis and the purpose of the

experiment was therefore fulfilled. One possible source of error for this lab

could occur in part 1 where the reactions of different reagents with different

ions are recorded in data charts. If there is incorrect information about

whether or not a precipitate formed it will most likely result in an incorrect

flow chart and an incorrect identification of the ions in the unknown. That is

why it is important to use the centrifuge if there is uncertainty about a

precipitate or the reaction should be performed again. Another source of error

would be to add too many drops of reagent to the ion or sample of unknown. This

is because a precipitate may form with the reagent but dissolve in an excess of

the reagent. Therefore the precipitate could form but then be dissolved without

ever being seen. This would also result in an incorrect flow chart and an

incorrect identification of the unknown ions. Another source of error could

occur in making or following the flow chart. Incorrect reasoning when designing

the flow chart will make it difficult to correctly identify the ions in the

unknown and not following the flow chart correctly would obviously cause error

in the final results.