Lexico-sementic characterstics of business letter correspondence

Рефераты по предпринимательству » Lexico-sementic characterstics of business letter correspondence

Курсовая работа

по теме:

«LEXICO-SEMENTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BUSINESS LETTER CORRESPONDENCE»

Сдала: студентка гр. РП -41
Юрченко М. В.

Приняла: ст. преподаватель Галиченко Н. Ю.

Content

Content.........................................................................................

ANNOTATION.................................................................................

INTRODUCTION.............................................................................

BUSINESS LETTERS THROUGHT LEXICS...............................

A sampling of contract phrases...................................................

Foreign esoteric words...............................................................

Some words against passive........................................................

EXAMINING ENGLISH BUSINESS LETTERS.........................

Example 1......................................................................................

Example2.......................................................................................

Example 3......................................................................................

Example 4......................................................................................

Example 5......................................................................................

Example 6......................................................................................

CONCLUSION................................................................................

BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................


ANNOTATION

The subject matter of the course paper is the role of lexics and semantics in the case of business letter correspondence. The question of the history of official communication the main stages of business transactions the role of person’s feeling for the proper use of phrases as well as his knowledge of grammar are highlighted. Moreover those phrases which are more often used in business letters are examined from the point of view of their appropriateness in different situations. The practical part contains several examples of business letters; the occasions on which they were written and some of their characteristics are observed.

INTRODUCTION

Letter writing - is an essential part of communication an intimate part of experience. Each letter-writer has acharacteristic way of writing his style of writing his wayof expressing thoughts facts etc. but it must beemphasised that the routine of the official or semi-officialbusiness letters requires certain accepted idioms phrases patterns and grammar which are found in general use today.Therefore certain skills must be acquired by practice anddetails of writing must be carefully and thoroughly learnt.

A cheque a contract or any other business paper sent bymail should always be accompanied by a letter. The letter sayswhat is being sent so that the recipient should know exactly whatyou intended to send. It is a typical business letter whichsome people call "routine". The letter may be short or long it may contain some very important and much less importantinformation - every letter requires careful planning andthoughtful writing.

In recent years English has become a universal business language. As such it is potentially an instrument of order and clarity. But words and phrases have unexpected ways of creating binding commitments.

Letter-writing certainly is not the same as casualconversation it bears only the same power of thoughts reflections and observations as in conversational talk butthe form may be quite different. What makes the letter soattractive and pleasing is not always the massage of theletter it is often the manner and style in which the massageis written.

E.g.: "I wish to express to you my sincere appreciation for your note of congratulation."

o r "I am sincerely happy that you were elected President of Biological Society."

As you see such formulations show the attitude of the writer his respect and sincerity.

The language of business professional and semi-official letters is formal courteous tactful concise expressive and to the point. A neatly arranged letter will certainly make a better impression on the reader thus good letters make good business partners.

In the case of "scientific correspondence" the majority of letters bear mostly a semi-official character and are concerned with different situations associated with scientific activities concentrated around the organisation of scientific meetings (congresses symposia workshops etc.) the arrangement of visit invitation publication the exchange of scientific literature information etc. Letters of this kind have a tone of friendliness naturalism. Modern English letters should not be exaggerated overburdened outmoded with time-worn expressions. The key note is simplicity. Modern letters tend towards using the language of conversational style.

Writing is not only a means of communication and contract but also a record of affairs information events etc. So it is necessary to feel the spirit and trend of the style in order to write a perfect letter.

Business-letter or contract law is a complex and vastly documented subject only a lawyer can deal with it on a serious level. A number of basic principles however can be outlined sufficiently to mark of encounters that require the use of specialised English.

Doing business means working out agreements with other people sometimes through elaborate contracts and sometimes through nothing but little standard forms through exchanges of letters and conversations at lunch.

Nowadays more and more agreements are made in English for English is the nearest thing we have to a universal business language. Joint ventures bank loans and trademark licenses frequently are spelled out in this language even though it is not native to at least one of the contracting parties.

As a beginning I am going to look at the subject of writing of business letters generally. In the main there are three stages transactions involving business contracts: first negotiation of terms second drafting documents reflecting these terms and third litigation to enforce or to avoid executing of these terms. To my mind a fourth might be added the administration of contracts.

I am going to look through the first two since the third and the fourth are related only to the field of law. A typical first stage of contract is two or more people having drink and talking about future dealing. A second phase might be letters written in order to work out an agreement.

In these two early stages it will be helpful to know something about rules of contract. But what rules? Different nations borrow or create different legal systems and even within a single country the rules may vary according to region or the kind of transaction involved.

It is worth knowing that the distinctions in legal system of England are mainly historical.

The history of writing business letters is undoubtedly connected with the history of development of legal language. English is in fact a latecomer as a legal language. Even after the Norman Conquest court pleadings in England were in French and before that lawyers used Latin. Perhaps some of our difficulties arise due to the fact that English was unacceptable in its childhood.

Contract in English suggest Anglo-American contract rules. The main point is always to be aware that there are differences: the way they may be resolved usually is a problem for lawyers. With contracts the applicable law may be the law of the place where the contract is made; in other cases it may be the law of the place where the contract is to be performed. It is specified in preliminary negotiations which system of law is to apply.

Diversity is characteristic feature of English; here is a wide range of alternatives to choose from in saying things although the conciseness is sometimes lacking. Consequently the use of English is a creative challenge. Almost too many riches are available for selection that leads occasionally to masterpieces but more frequently to mistakes. English is less refined in its distinctions than French for example and this makes it harder to be clear.

That does not mean that English is imprecise for all things are relative. If we compare English with Japanese we will see that the latter possesses enormous degree of politeness to reflect the respectiveness of speaker and listener as well as of addresser and addressee.

Here I cannot help mentioning the fact that as contracts are so unclear in what every side intends to do a contract can sometimes put a company out of business.

Thus everybody who is involved in any kind of business should study thoroughly the complex science of writing business letters and contracts.

BUSINESS LETTERS THROUGHT LEXICS

From the lexicological point of view isolated words and phrases mean very little. In context they mean a great deal and in the special context of contractual undertakings they mean everything. Contract English is a prose organised according to plan.

And it includes without limitation the right but not the obligation to select words from a wide variety of verbal implements and write clearly accurately and/or with style.

Two phases of writing contracts exist: in the first we react to proposed contracts drafted by somebody else and in the second which presents greater challenge we compose our own.

A good contract reads like a classic story. It narrates in orderly sequence that one part should do this and another should do that and perhaps if certain events occur the outcome will be changed. All of the rate cards charts and other reference material ought to be ticked off one after another according to the sense of it. Tables and figures code words and mystical references are almost insulting unless organised and defined. Without organisation they baffle without definition they entrap.

In strong stance one can send back the offending document and request a substitute document in comprehensible English. Otherwise a series of questions may be put by letter and the replies often will have contractual force if the document is later contested.

A sampling of contract phrases

My observations about English so far have been general in nature. Now it appears logical to examine the examples of favourite contract phrases which will help ease the way to fuller examination of entire negotiations and contracts. a full glossary is beyond reach but in what follows there is a listing of words and phrases that turn up in great many documents with comments on each one. The words and phrases are presented in plausible contract sequence not alphabetically.

"Whereas " Everyman's idea of how a contract begins. Some lawyers dislike "Whereas" and use recitation clauses so marked to distinguish them from the text in the contract. There the real issue lies; one must be careful about mixing up recitals of history with what is actually being agreed on. For example it would be folly to write: "Whereas A admits owing B $10 000 ..." because the admission may later haunt one especially if drafts are never signed and the debt be disputed. Rather less damaging would be:

"Whereas the parties have engaged in a series of transactions resulting in dispute over accounting between them..."

On the whole "Whereas" is acceptable but what follows it needs particular care.

"It is understood and agreed " On the one hand it usually adds nothing because every clause in the contract is "understood and agreed" or it would not be written into it. On the other hand what it adds is an implication that other clauses are not backed up by this phrase: by including the one you exclude the other. «It is understood and agreed» ought to be banished.

"Hereinafter " A decent enough little word doing the job of six ("Referred to later in this document"). "Hereinafter" frequently sets up abbreviated names for the contract parties.

For example:

"Knightsbridge International Drapes and Fishmonger Ltd (hereinafter "Knightsbridge").

"Including Without Limitation " It is useful and at times essential phrase. Earlier I've noted that mentioning certain things may exclude others by implication. Thus

"You may assign your exclusive British and Commonwealth rights"

suggests that you may not assign other rights assuming you have any. Such pitfalls may be avoided by phrasing such as:

"You may assign any and all your rights including without limitation your exclusive British and Commonwealth rights".

But why specify any rights if all of them are included? Psychology is the main reason; people want specific things underscored in the contracts and "Including Without Limitation" indulges this prediction.

"Assignees and Licensees " These are important words which acceptability depends on one's point of view

"Knightsbridge its assignees and licensees..."

suggests that Knightsbridge may hand you over to somebody else after contracts are signed. If you yourself happen to be Knightsbridge you will want that particular right and should use the phrase.

"Without Prejudice " It is a classic. The British use this phrase all by itself leaving the reader intrigued. "Without Prejudice" to what exactly? Americans spell it out more elaborately but if you stick to American way remember "Including Without Limitation" or you may accidentally exclude something by implication. Legal rights for example are not the same thing as remedies the law offers to enforce them. Thus the American might write:

"Without prejudice to any of my existing or future rights or remedies..."

And this leads to another phrase.

"And/or " It is an essential barbarism. In the preceding example I've used the disjunctive "rights or remedies". This is not always good enough and one may run into trouble with

"Knightsbridge or Tefal or either of them shall..."

What about both together? "Knightsbridge and Tefal " perhaps followed by "or either ". Occasionally the alternatives become overwhelming thus and/or is convenient and generally accepted although more detail is better.

"Shall " If one says "Knightsbridge and/or Tefal shall have ..." or "will have..." legally it should make nodifference in the case you are consent in using one or theother. "Shall " however is stronger than "will ". Going fromone to another might suggest that one obligation is strongersomehow than another. Perhaps one's position may determinethe choice. "You shall " however is bad form.

"Understanding " It is a dangerous word. If you meanagreement you ought to say so. If you view of affairsthatthereis no agreement "understanding" as a noun suggeststhe opposite or comes close to it. .it stands in fact as amonument to unsatisfactory compromise. The softness of theword conjures up pleasing images. "In accordance with our understanding ..." can be interpreted in a number of ways.

"Effect " Here is a little word which uses areinsufficiently praised. Such a phrase as "We willproduce..." is inaccurate because the work will besubcontracted and the promise-maker technically defaults.Somebody else does the producing. Why not say "We will produce or cause to be produced..."? This is in fact often said butit jars the ear. Accordingly "We will effect production ..." highlights the point with greater skill.

"Idea " This word is bad for your own side but helpful against others. Ideas as such are not generally protected by law. If you submit something to a company with any hope of reward you must find better phrasing than "my idea ".

Страницы: 1 2 3