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Š 4

1 Ƞ 5

2 Ҡ 6

3 9

4 ( ) 12

5 Ƞ 15

6   17

7   19

1

F= Ö(-)(-)(-) =++/2 (1.1)

: F- - - .


F1=Ö0 144(0 144-0 074)(0 144-0 125)(0 144-0 09)= 0 329 2 (1.2)


F2=Ö0 135(0 135-0 09)(0 135-0 054)(0 135-0 127)= 0 206 2 (1.3)


F3=Ö0 139*0 012*0 053*0 074= 0 255 2 (1.4)

F= 0 329+0 206+0 255= 0 79 2 (1.5)

5

2

2.1 Q3%

Q= 16 7***F*j*Ki* 3/񠠠 (2.1)

= * / (2.2)

4

- ;

;

= 0 74 ( 1 4)

= 1 60 ( 2 4)

2.2

= 0 74*1 60= 1 12 /

= 0*d (2.3)

0- ( 3 4);

0= 0 65

d-

d= 1-g*b*Ϡ (2.4)

g - - ( 6 4)

g= 0 15

b- - ( 7 5)

b= 1 0

- ( 10-11 5)

= 1 0

2.4 d

d= 1-0 15*1*1= 0 85

2.3

= 0 65*0 85= 0 55

( 4 4)

j= 0 57

i

I= (-)/L (2.5)

-

=172 5

-

= 167 5

L-

L= 1240

2.5

I= (172 5-167 5)/1240= 0 004= 4%0

5 4

i= 0 78

6

=(D/L)ÖF (2.6)

.

D L2/F

L2/F=1 242/7 9=0 19

8 5

D= 0 98

2.6

=(0 98/1 24)Ö0 79= 0 70

2.1

Q3%= 16 7*1 12*0 55*0 79*0 57*0 78*0 70= 2 5 3/

2.2 Q

Q= [*hp*F/(F+1)n]**.. (2.7)

:

a= i/i (2.8)

i=25/ÖF+1=25/Ö0 79+1=18 66 %0 (2.9)

2.8

a= 4/18 66= 0 21

0 21<1 - III

14 6

= 0 006

h

h=*h0 (2.10)

-

=v*+1 (2.11)

v- 3 3

v= 0 3

- v= 1 16 6 s

s= 3 v= 3*0 3= 0 9

= 2 45

2.11

= 0 3*2 45+1= 1 73

h0 . 2 2.

h0= 180

h0=180*1 1= 198

2.10 h

h= 1 73*198= 342 54

2.7

Q= 0 006*342 54*0 79/(0 79+1)0 25= 1 62/1 16= 1 4 3/

7

2.3

= 168 75-165 5= 3 25

i= 1/0 0178= 56

i= 1/0 0089= 112

2.1

 


W= 1000***F*t (2.12)

t- . 12 5

t= 30

W= 1000*1 12*0 55*0 79*30= 14599 3

W= 220**h2/i0 (2.13)


Q= 2 5ÞV= 0 5 /

w= Q/V=2 5/0 5= 5 2 (2.14)

h= Öw*2/H= Ö5*2/168= 0 2 젠 (2.15)

2.13

W= 220*34*0 22/4= 75 3

Q= Q[1- (W/W)0.75]= 2 5[1-(75/14599)0 75]= 2 45 3/񠠠 (2.16)

: 5% . Q= 2 5 3/.

8

3

3.1

 

Q= Q= 2 5 3/

n= 0 033 m= 0 46

4 %0=

= 0 004

-

h= m3Ö/I (3.1)

m- . 1 7

m= 0 45

- .

= Q/Öi= 2 5/Ö0 004= 39 7 3/񠠠 (3.2)

I-

I= m+n= 1/0 0178+1/0 0083= 56+112= 168 (3.3)

3.1

h= 0 463Ö39 7/168= 0 29

Q= w*V (3.4)

w-

w= (h2/2)I=(0 292/2)168= 7 06 2 (3.5)

V-

V= ÖR*i (3.6)

- . 5 7 R

R= h/2= 0 29/2= 0 15 (3.7)

= 15

3.6

V= 15Ö0 15*0 004= 0 37 /

3.4

Q= 7 06*0 37= 2 6 3/

Q Q 5%

Q= 2 5 3/

w= (h)

h

w R Q
0,24 4,84 13 0,12 1,4
0,29 7,06 15 0,15 2,6
0,34 9,71 17 0,17 4,3

9

h

 

Q 3/

 

5

 

4

 

1

 

0,35

 

0,30

 

0,25

 

0,20

 
( 2 7)


Q= 2 5 3/ h= 0 28

5%

h= 0 28 Þ Q= 2 17 3/

5% 2 5*0 05= 0 125; 2 5-2 17= 0 33 .

h= aV2/g (3.8)

V-

V= V5Öh (3.9)

V- . 2 7.

V= 3 /

3.9 V

V= 35Ö0 28= 2 33 /

3.8 h

h= 1*2 332/2*9 81= 0 26

h< h

.

3.2

 


= Q/m hV (3.10)

m-

m=0 8 %

3.10

= 2 5/0 8*0 28*2 33= 4 8

10

= h+V2/2gj2= 0 28+2 332/2*9 81*0 952= 0 59 젠 (3.11)

j-

j = 0 95 %


3.3

= ++Ѡ (3.12)

- = 0 25

- 3 7

= 0 46

3.12

= 0 59+0 25+0 46= 1 3

L= +2mH+2+2Р (3.13)

- = 0 15-0 5

- 10

3.13

L= 4 8+2*1 5*1 3+2*0 1+2*0 5= 9 2

: .

11

4

4.1

S=H/d £ 1 2

I

n= 0 013


4.1

d= 1 2 8 Q= 2 5 3/ = 2 47

S= 2 47/1 0= 2 47 > 1 2

d= 1 .

d= 1 5 = 1 30

S= 1 30/1 5= 0 87 < 1 2

. d= 1 5 .

3 8

V= 2 9 /

h= 0 78h (4.1)

h- 1 8 h/d. Q2/gd5

Q2/gd5= 2 52/9 81*1 55= 0 28 (4.2)

h/d= 0 40

h= 0 40*1 5= 0 6 젠 (4.3)

4.1

h= 0 78*0 6= 0 47

h/d= 0 47/1 5= 0 31 (4.4)

1 8

w= 0 196d2= 0 196*1 52= 0 44 2 (4.5)

= h+ Q2/2gj2w2= 0 47+2 52/2*9 81*0 572*0 442= 5 7 젠 (4.6)

V= Q/w (4.7)

w- w= (h)

i= Q2/w22R(4.8)

i= i0 £ i

h/d= 0 6/1 5= 0 4 (4.9)

1 8 :

w= 0 293d2= 0 293*1 52= 0 66 2 (4.10)

R= 0 214d= 0 214*1 5= 0 32 젠 (4.11)

= 66

4.8

i= 2 52/0 662*662*0 32= 0 010= 10%0

0 010>0 004

.

h= (0 8+0 85) h= (0 8+0 85)0 6= 0 99 젠 (4.12)

h/d= 0 99/1 5= 0 66

1 8

w= 0 540d2= 0 540*1 52= 1 22 2

4.7

V= 2 5/1 22= 2 05 /

: V= 2 05 / 1 1 9 ( 5 ) 15 .

4.2


4.2

2 8

= 2 47

S= /d= 2 47/1= 2 47>1 2 (4.13)

.

( )

V= 5 1 /

i0 ³ iw

iw= Q2/w22R򠠠 (4.14)

R-

R= R/2= ¼= 0 25 젠 (4.15)

1 8

w= 0 332

= 62

4.14

iw= 2 52/0 3322*622*0 25= 0 059

i0 < iw

: .

13

4.3

- S= /d > 1 4 i0 < iw.

24 1 I ( 2).


4.3

2 8 S= /d= 2 47/1= 2 47>1 4- .

V= 2 7 /

4.14

iw= Q2/w22R= 2 52/0 3322*622*0 25= 0 059>0 004

i0 < iw- .

= +L(iw- i0 )= 2 47+24(0 059-0 004)= 3 79 젠 (4.16)

= 0 60 9

V= Q/w= 2 5/0 9*0 332= 8 3 /񠠠 (4.17)

: .

14

5

( )

: i0= 0 004; Q= 2 5 3/; - ; = 8; m= 1 5; - Æ 40


5.1

= 4 0 ;

V= ÖI (5.1)

 

h

 
- 1 9 .

= 0 50 /

- ; h- ; - ; i0- (i0>0).

= +2m +2= 8+2*3*4+2*0 5= 33 젠 (5.2)

£ /1= 33/3 5= 9 43

1- . 2 9.

. ( 3.3)

I= 70/7 5+140/7 5= 28

( 3.2)

= Q/Öi= 2 5/Ö0 004= 39 7

1 7

m= 0 55

3.1

h= 0 553Ö39 7/28= 0 62

w= Q/Ö[(- h)/]+ik= 2 5/0 5Ö[(3 5-0 62)/33]+0.004= 16 7 2 (5.3)

w= m*2 (5.4)

=Öw/m (5.5)

m= I/2= 28/2= 14 (5.6)

5.5

= Ö15 3/6 65= 1 09

= 2 m = 2*14*1 09= 30 5 젠 (5.7)

g=Q/ = 2 5/30 5= 0 08 (5.8)

g= (0 251 0) g>g g= 0 25.

= Q/g= 2 5/0 25= 10 젠 (5.9)

= 2w/ = 2*16 7/10= 3 34 젠 (5.10)

m=w/ 2= 16 7/3 342= 1 5 (5.11)

1:3.

h= (+ h)/2= (3 34+0 62)/2= 1 98 젠 (5.12)

w= m h2= 3*1 982= 11 76 2 (5.13)

V.=Q/w= 2 5/11 76*0 46*0 9= 0 59 /񠠠 (5.14)

V= 1 7 V.= 1 7*0 59= 1 /񠠠 (5.15)

: 1 1 9 ( ).

16

6

6.1

: - 3; -19%0; - .

Q= 87 5F= 87 5*0 70*0 04= 0 3 3/񠠠 (6.1)

- ( 1 4)

= 0 70

F-

F= 0 04 2

2 7

V= 1 2 /

w= Q/ V= 0 3/1 2= 0 25 2 (6.2)

h=Öw/m= 0 25/3= 0 29 젠 (6.3)

= 2mh= 2*3*0 29= 1 74 젠 (6.4)

= 2hÖ1+m2= 2*0 29Ö1+32= 1 83 젠 (6.5)

R= w/= 0 25/1 83= 0 14 젠 (6.6)

= R1/6/0 019= 38 (6.7)

I= V2/ 2R= 1 22/382*0 14= 0 007 (6.8)

V= ÖRi= 38Ö0 14*0 007= 1 2 /񠠠 (6.9)

: 1 9 .


6.1

6.2

: - 3; - 30 %0; - .

= 0 70

F= 0 05 2

( 6.1)

Q= 87 5*0 70*0 05= 3 1 3/

2 7

V= 0 85 /

( 6.2)

w= 3 1/0 85= 3 7 2

( 6.3 6.4)

h= Ö3 7/3= 1 11

= 2*3*1 11= 6 7

( 6.5) 17

= 2*1 11Ö32+1= 7 02

( 6.7 6.6)

R= 3 7/7 02= 0 53

= 0 531/6/0 03= 28 9

( 6.8)

I= 0 852/28 92*0 53= 0 0016

( 6.9)

V= 28 9Ö0 53*0 0016= 0 85 /

: 1 9 ( .

18

7

1 .. .. 2- .I-II - 2- - .: 1987-368 .

2 - .: 1989-415 .

3 2.05.02-93 -.: 1987-50 .

19

. . . . ( .) .